The Mi'kmaq Nation was a member of the Wabanaki Confederacy that controlled much of New England and the Canadian Maritimes. The Micmacs are original natives of the Nova Scotia/New Brunswick region. They moved into Quebec, Newfoundland, and Maine later, but they were well-established in those locations by the time Europeans arrived. Today, most Mi'kmaq people live on the Canadian side of the border, but one band, the Aroostook, lives in northeastern Maine. Like most American Indian tribes of Canada, the Micmac people live on reserves which belong to them and are legally under their control. Each Micmac tribe, known as a "band" or "First Nation" in Canada, is politically independent and has its own leadership (although in some cases several Mi'kmaq nations have formed coalitions to address common problems). However the Canadian government still considers the Micmacs citizens and controls some of their decisions. There is also one Micmac reservation in Maine which is similarly overseen by the US government. Each Mi'kmaq First Nation has its own government, laws, police, and other services, just like a small country.

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