Black Seminole Abraham


Abraham had fled the army of Andrew Jackson and helped build the fort at Prospect Bluff (in Florida). When Nichols and and Upper Creek Chief Joseph Francis set sail for England in 1815 Abraham stayed behind in the Fort, which had become a haven for Africans who had escaped from slavery.

The fort was attacked and destroyed during the first Seminole War (1817-1818); Abraham was one of the few survivors. He made his way to a Suwannee River Town in Flroida. Abraham continued fighting during the first Seminole War and he became known as "Sauanaffe Tustunnagee" (Suwannee Warrior). He lived in an African town in Florida called Pilaklinkaha, or Many Ponds, and was adopted as a member of the Seminole Nation. He became the Prime Minister of the Cowkeeper Dynasty and a chief advisor to Micanopy, principle chief of the Alachua Seminole.

Photo of Seminoles – warrior Abraham and wife Hagan


Abraham even served as an interpreter for Micanopy in 1826 when a delegation of Seminole Chiefs visited Washington D.C. Later in life, Abraham married a woman named Hagan, the widow of Chief Bowlegs. A detail of Abraham’s death is unknown.

African American and Native American History
Princeton Public Library
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Princeton, NJ 08542

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