Civil Rights Movement and the American Indian Movement

Each of these movements knew that they were necessary for the survival of a people. The great religious leader, and social activist, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., stated, “how can a man ride your back unless it is bent”. Well both the CRM and the AIM had a vision to remove the heavy loads of mistreatment from the backs of African Americans and Native Americans and their generations to come.  

The history of both the CRM and AIM demonstrates their ability to repeatedly bring successful law suits against the federal government for the protection of the rights of African American and Native American peoples. These rights guaranteed for Native Americans by treaties, and rights of sovereignty. These rights for both Native Americans and African Americans as guaranteed in the United States Constitution, and laws.   

Each movement had a religious/spiritual, social, and civic force that moved them forward. Each movement is alive and well today in many forms and through the missions of many organizations. AIM states that, “the work goes on because the need goes on”. 

Article by CherokeeCloud

 

Written September 10, 2006

North American Indigenous Games

The North American Indigenous Games (NAIG) is a celebration of sport and culture for North American Indigenous peoples from across Turtle Island (North America). It is recognized by the Aboriginal Peoples and Governments of Canada and Tribal nations from the U.S.

Native American Sports Council

The Native American Sports Council (NASC) provides opportunities for sports recognition and exposure. The NASC conducts community based multi-sport programs which encourage healthful community participation and provide assistance to Native American Olympic hopefuls.

African American Program Studies

African American studies have expanded beyond the mention of African American contributions during the February Black History month. Educators are being trained to incorporate the history of the African American into main stream history. In many instances the history of the African American is missing or distorted from American History and thus it is necessary to bring a focus and clarity. A starting point at African Antiquity is sought rather than a starting point at African Slavery. This new starting point brings pride and appreciation for the African American.

  

When a diverse history is taught everyone benefits and “common ground” is found. This common ground leads to a striving for a higher ground of appreciation of a pluralistic society.

  

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written September 9, 2006

Native American Studies Programs

Native American Studies, as an academic discipline, examines the contemporary and ancient experiences and ways of life of the first Americans. This is done from a Native American perspective. The curriculum is designed to provide a study of American Indians from a holistic and humanistic viewpoint by focusing upon Native American cultural, historical, and contemporary life.   

The areas of concentration include studies with the granting of certificates, diplomas, and bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. Student’s learn Indian Policy and Law, American Indian Art, American Indian Religion, American Indian Literature, American Indian Education, American Indian Oral Literature, Federal Indian Law, Survey of Indian Languages, Native American Educational Issues, American Indian Women in American Society, The American Indian Political Experience, American Indian Poetry and Fiction, Indians Through Film and Television, American Indian History, Roots of Indian Tradition, Contemporary Issues, American Indian Identity, Environmental Management, and Special Study.

 

Participating in a Native American Studies Program is a great way to learn about your heritage and also received a formal education in an area of importance. It will help you to advocate for important Native causes.

 

  

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written September 8, 2006

The Need for Healing: Post 911

There have been many events of great tragedy in the United States history, but the 911 tragedy did not make a distinction between race, gender, ethnic group or culture. All suffered when family members, relatives, friends and acquaintances perished or were tragically affected. Thus, it is a time when healing five years later is still needed.

  

Statistics indicate that the number of victims from the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the Pennsylvania crash site totaled 3,047. The gender of 5 victims and the race of 139 victims were unknown. Males constituted 2,303 victims (75.6 percent) and females made up the remaining 739 (24.3 percent). Of the total victims, 2,435 (79.9 percent) were white, 286 (9.4 percent) were black, and 187 (6.1 percent) were of other races.

  

It is believed that 3 were Native American or Alaskan Native victims and 286 were African American. But we weep and have a spirit of sorrow for all that perished.

   

Take an opportunity to reflect and pray for healing for yourself and others.

  

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written September 7, 2006

Black Red Roots in Community

The Seven Principles of Nation Building or Nguzo Saba provide a model for what is to be accomplished by the joining of the “Black Red Roots Community”. It is the building of a Nation on principles that are very characteristic of both the African and the Indian. The principles demonstrate how both have survived throughout history and how they can be strengthened for the future. In Nguzo Saba the principles include the following:

  

  • UMOJA – UNITY
  • KUJICHAGULIA – SELF-DERTIMINATION
  • UJIMA –  COLLECTIVE WORK AND RESPONSIBILITY
  • UJAMAA – COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS
  • NIA – PURPOSE
  • KUUMBA – CREATIVITY
  • IMANI – FAITH

  

During the celebration of Nguzo Saba candles are lit for each one of the seven principles. The symbolic colors of the candles are three RED candles, one BLACK candle, and three GREEN candles. The red candles symbolize the blood of ancestors, the black candle symbolizes the faces of the people, and the green candles symbolize the land, the youth, and new ideas.

  

These candles are symbolic of the Black Red Roots Community’s purpose. It is the joining together of African Americans (Black) with the Native Americans (Red) heritages to nourish the roots (Green) of their common ancestries and inform the youth of their rich legacies to increase knowledge and new ideas for common unity.

  

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written September 6, 2006

Bird In Flight

Bird in Flight – Cherokee 

Native Name – Tsisqua  Ulawidvda

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Native American Arts and Crafts

Geographically a purchase from a Native American Reservation might be a sure way to guarantee or authenticate a purchase of arts or crafts. But, not very many people intend to travel to a reservation to make a purchase. Most people will make purchases from a Native American local product store, catalog, or at a gathering such as a Pow-Wow.

  

The Indian blood quantum method of purchase might be very intrusive. It would even be considered rude to ask the seller, artist, or craftsman to see his or her official state or federally recognized Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) quantum card. So, the honor system is respected for purchases.

  

A reference to handmade products would focus on the fact that historically Native Americans utilized their hands and creativity to skin animals, whittle tree limbs, pound rocks, stones, and jewels, and collect clay or reeds to make clothing, tools, jewelry, baskets and pots. So, if the item to be purchased was made by hands through passing down of tradition, rather than on an assembly line a purchaser might be satisfied with authenticity.

  

Or lastly, the arts and crafts have a label or engraved stamp that indicates Native American agreement of authenticity.

 

Whatever the method used to justify ‘authenticity’ the most valuable measure is for the purchaser to feel an obligation to support Native American people and their attempt for self-determination and co-operative economics.  

 Article by CherokeeCloud

 Written September 1, 2006

Second Son

Second Son – Cherokee 

Native Name – Talini  Uwetsi

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First Explorers

Did you know that by the time the first explorers and settlers arrived from Europe, Native Americans had populated the entire North American Continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Gulf of Mexico all the way to the northern reaches of Canada.

Native American Day

Native American Day is the 4th Friday in September. This day is set aside to honor and celebrate Native Americans, the first Americans to live in the U.S. Still commonly referred to as American Indians, the term "Native Americans" has been used in recent years as a sign of respect and recognition that they were indeed the first people to populate our wonderful nation.

Native Identities

Early federal census records, 1790-1850, included Indians only if they lived in settled areas, were taxed, and did not maintain a tribal affiliation. These censuses did not specify their race. Indians were indicated as white, if living with white settlers, or black, if living with African Americans. Indians who lived on reservations or who roamed as nomads over unsettled tracts of land and were not taxed and were not counted in these federal censuses.

Indian Reservations

An Indian or Native American Reservation is a land area that is under the management of a Native American tribe. It is land that through the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was reserved for Native Americans. … Indian Reservations »»

Weeks of Sorrows – Hurricane Katrina Reflections

As I viewed the Hurricane Katrina weather disaster and the following disaster of judgment amongst officials it was a sad memory of the weakest and poorest amongst us being treated with disrespect and contempt. How could the riches nation in the world not take care of its people as the news media reported their sufferings? And the entire world viewed with unbelief the negligence and politics as usual attitudes and actions.

 

It was weeks of sorrow much like those experienced in the ancestral past as Africans were huddled and lined up like sardines in the hulls of slave ships, much the same memory of the mostly African Americans huddled in the New Orleans Dome. Little to no food, water, and with the simplest accommodations were available. People treated as if they were animals rather than valued humans.  

Native Americans, mostly Mississippi Choctaw faring much the same, as they suffered many losses. But, with one ray of hope coming as other Native American tribes acted to provide assistance for their brothers and sisters. I am reminded of the Seminole Tribe of Florida who sent emergency crews to the Mississippi Choctaw Reservation. The Klamath Tribes in Oregon who made provisions to send their primary physician, Dr. Curtis Hanst, and their pharmacist, Dr. Matt Baker, to New Orleans, the city that has endured some of the worst damage. The Chitimacha Tribe taking in 400 tribal members who lived in New Orleans. Then, the Poarch Creeks, sending clothing, food and water to the Chitimacha Tribe in Louisiana.. These examples being only a few examples of Native Americans aiding Native Americans. 

I received an email from a Cherokee Elder requesting clothing be sent to Arkansas to assist Mississippi Choctaw that would be arriving in Arkansas for relief. It was good to help and good to know that a system although informal was in place to aid fellow Native Americans during the Katrina Hurricane disaster. I wondered if the Native Americans knew their assistance from governmental agencies would be limited or non-existent based on past experiences, so they immediately sprang to action to help each other. 

Self-help is sure help… 

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written August 30, 2006

  

 

Article by CherokeeCloud

 Written August 30, 2006

Ojibwe Saying

"It is time to talk with our Brothers and Sisters of other nations, colors and beliefs. The ideas and philosophies of yesterday may be the key to the world family's future."

Edward Benton-Benai, Ojibwe

Effects of Abuse

It is a little known fact that both Africans and Indians were enslaved in the United States. Both held against their will and forced to farm the land and work back-breaking and in-humane tedious tasks. These had the effect of breaking down both the body and the spirit of the African and Indian.

  

The stealing of the Indian’s land and the stealing away of the African from the ‘Mother Land (Africa)’ brought much pain and hardship to both groups of people. Next the dismantling of the African and Native family structures and selling of family members all caused two devastating effects that have lasted centuries. These pains and hardships are observed with the vestiges of health diseases and other physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual harms.

  

Both African Americans and Native Americans share the unwanted distinctions of having high rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, suicide, lowered life expectancy, and high infant mortality rates. Many of the effects of slavery, dispossession of land and genocide of culture abuses demonstrate how outward abuse can be turned inward resulting in personal depression. Personal depression in many instances is then responded to as personal abuses.

  

Break this chain of abuse by reclaiming your history, culture, and honor. Know who you are and cherish it.

  

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written August 28, 2006

Native Americans And Christianity

This same struggle occurred with the African Americans because religion was used to justify their enslavement rather than to remove and relinquish it. Thus, many African Americans have had to find their voice and their place in Christian belief and worship. Seeking to understand and interpret the Holy Bible for himself or herself.As personal and collective interpretation of Christianity occurred the Native Americans and African Americans found freedom. They found a freedom that conquered their physical captivity. Thus, in progressively larger numbers the traditional religions of the Indian and African have been replaced by Christianity.  

Richard Twiss of the Rosebud Lakota/Sioux in his book, “One Church Many Tribes”, indicates that for five long centuries the Native American has struggled to find a place of acceptance and recognition of their cultural identity in the Church.” But, Twiss is encouraged and hopeful that Native Americans are seeking and will seek freedom and wholeness in Christianity.  

So, in examining the question are there Native American Christians? The answer is “Yes”.  

Article by CherokeeCloud

Written: August 27, 2006

Reposted: December 10, 2006

Native Voice One

The voice of Native America has become a lot stronger with the July 1 launch of Native Voice One. Based in Albuquerque, NV1 is already streaming Native programming around the world 24/7 via its Web site, www.nv1.org, and distributing material to 35 American Indian radio stations across the United States and Canada, as well as introducing mainstream radio outlets to Native programming. See www.nv1.org

CLAN WITH A “C” not a “K”

In the Native American culture a Clan is a division amongst a Tribe. It is a way of creating groups within a Tribe. The groups are generally related by family, kinship, or some common purpose. In many instances the Clans have animal names, color names, or names that are items in nature, or responsibilities to the Tribe members.

  

For example the Delaware Indians have three notable Clans. They are the Wolf Clan, Turtle Clan, and Turkey Clan. Also, the Cherokee Indians have seven Clans. They are the Wolf Clan, Blue Clan, Long Hair Clan, Bird Clan, Paint Clan, Deer Clan, and the Wild Potato Clan (also known as the Bear Clan).

  

The Cherokee Clan purposes are listed as follows:

Wolf Clan – protectors of the members of the Tribe

Blue Clan – caretakers of the herb gardens used for medicine

Long Hair Clan – traditional teachers and keepers of tradition

Bird Clan – messengers of the Tribe

Paint Clan – medical people or healers of the Tribe

Deer Clan – hunters for the Tribe, and they care for the animals that lived with the Tribe

Wild Potato Clan (Bear Clan) – farmers and food gathers of the Tribe

 

  

So, Native Americans can belong to a Native Nation, a Tribe, a Band, and a Clan.

  

Curious about if your ancestors belonged to a Clan? Join the “Black Red Roots Community” and learn more about it.

  

Article by: CherokeeCloud

Written: August 24, 2006

First Rain

First Rain – Cherokee 

Native Name – Igvyi   Agana

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Bear Claw – Cherokee

Bear Claw – Cherokee

Native Name: Yonv Dekanagosga

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Recipe of the Week: New Corn-Stuffed Tamales

Properly treated and cooked, corn, which was a native dietary staple almost everywhere it grows, for 4,000 years, is as nutritious as wheat, and may be more so if what is grown in mineral-depleted soil with chemical fertilizers. Fresh corn nowadays has been bred up to be much higher in sugar — 2 – 4 times higher — than the colorful, traditional 4-colors corn, which is still a taste treat (and nutritional bonanza) if you can get it.

 

 

To roast the fresh corn: just put them (in their husks) in a 400 degree oven for 5 minutes. Husks and silk will peel off easily. Then scrape off kernels, standing cob in a big fry pan to catch them. Depending on the ears, it will take 2-4 ears to make 1 1/2 cups of kernels.

  

Cornhusk tamale wrappers: The ones you just prepared are probably dried out and frizzled. If you've saved and dried husks, steep them in boiling water to cover (poured over them, not cooked) while roasting and scraping the corn. Otherwise, you'll have to use foil wrappers.

  

Simmer milk and corn for about 10 minutes. Strain the corn, reserve the milk, and puree 1/2 cup of the kernels with this milk, reserving the rest for putting in the tamale dough. Add the puree to the masa, mix vigorously with spoon and whisk. In a separate large bowl, whip the soft butter, baking powder, and salt together until very fluffy. Start adding the masa mixture about 1/4 cup (guesstimated) at a time whisking and beating vigorously after each dough addition. Spend 15 minutes at least beating the masa mix into the butter. Fold in the green chile, the remaining cup of corn kernels, and grated cheese.

 

 Divide the dough into 8 equal pieces, about 4 Tbsp each. Pat each piece into a rectangle on a trimmed cornhusk to form a square or rectangle, leaving a husk border at the edges of the tamale at least 1 inch. Now fold up the rectangle along the length of the cornhusks and pinch it into a roll, loosely. Roll the husk up completely around the dough roll. Tie the ends with strips of cornhusk (traditional), or string (easier). The wrapping shouldn't be totally tight, so steam can get in. Place the wrapped tamales seam-side down on the rack of any kind of steamer (wok with a rack and tight cover will do, I use big enameled cast-iron fry pan with tight lid). Tamales shouldn't touch the boiling water. Steam for 30 minutes. Let cool slightly and serve (diners unwrap their own) with any kind of hot tomato or other type of sauce. Those celebrating New Corn eat it without sauce, but fat or butter is sometimes available. Makes 8 tamales

Recipe of the Week: Baked Black Beans

Baked Black Beans

            1 lb black beans
            1 large onion, chopped
            2 cloves garlic, minced
            3 stalks celery, diced
            1 minced carrot
            bay leaf, thyme, parsley, tied in bouquet
            1 tsp salt, freshly ground black pepper
            3 Tbs butter
            1 cup sour cream mixed w/ 1 cup plain yoghurt
            Chopped parsley

Soak beans overnight in water to cover, or boil 2 minutes and soak 1 hour, then re-boil. Drain soaked beans, add 6 cups of water. Add vegetables and seasonings, cook slowly until beans are tender, 1 1/2-2 hrs. Discard herb bouquet. Place beans and thir juice in bean pot or casserole. Add butter. Cover and bake until beans are tender, 2 hours. Mix yoghurt and sour cream and stir into hot beans. Sprinkle parsley over the top and serve from casserole. Serves 6.

Foods Shared in Common

 

Foods that are enjoyed today which are contributed to Native American origin are maize (corn), potatoes, wild rice, peppers, tomatoes, and many more. Foods that are contributed to African origin were brought with the slaves from Africa. The slave traders brought captured slaves and also foods from Africa. The foods included cassava, yams, greens, peas, beans, and cereals, watermelon, banana, plantain and many more.

  

For the Native American and Africans to go from an abundance of food and drink to having to make due with whatever scraps of nutrients they could find or be given by their European enslavers was quite a dramatic change. But, they still survived and shared what little they had during their enslavement with others. The food they survived on sustained life but not necessarily good health.

  

Today, people of color have the highest rates of many chronic diseases to include cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. That is why it is time to return to eating in what is termed “close to the soil”. In other words, begin to eat fresh vegetables and fruits and lots of water. These are the eating habits and diets of our heritage.

  

Article by: CherokeeCloud

 Written: August 23, 2006

Making the Connection

There are many ways. Two of which are a ‘paper trail’ and, a ‘DNA’ test. The paper trail is the least expensive but the most time intensive. It may take years to find and organize a paper trail in order to gain Native American Indian recognition and tribal enrollment. The Native American DNA test although much quicker (generally 8 to 12 weeks) is expensive.

  

The search for Native American heritage is a matter of your time or your money, and in some instances both.

  

For the ‘paper trail’ you must check census records, historical tribal enrollments, and sometimes be familiar with the Native language. For a DNA test, you must simply contact a DNA agency and participate in the collection your DNA for evaluation. But, it should be noted that most Native American tribes will not accept DNA evaluations for recognition and tribal enrollment. Thus, a paper trail is the one sure way of recognition and tribal enrollment.

  

Why is recognition and tribal enrollment important? Well, to some it is a matter of bringing closure to the status of the rumors they have heard from childhood of having “Indian” ancestry. To others it is a commemoration to their ancestors. It brings honor to their ancestors by reclaiming their heritage.

  

If you want tribal recognition and enrollment, then seek the ‘paper trail’. If you want to satisfy your own personal curiosity or bring closure to whether your ancestry included Native American ancestry then seek a DNA evaluation. The choice is yours.

 

Article by: CherokeeCloud 

Written: August 22, 2006 

We Can’t All Be Cherokee

These nations consisted of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole. The states where these Nations were predominant are as follows:

 

North Carolina – Cherokee

South Carolina –Cherokee

Georgia – Cherokee, Creek

Alabama – Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek

Mississippi – Choctaw

Florida – Seminole

  

So, if your family lineage originates in one of those states, there is a great possibility that your Native American roots are from one of the tribes that resided in the states as listed above. In other words we can’t all be Cherokee. Investigate the possibility that you are a member of one of the non-Cherokee tribes in the Southeast.

 

 

Article by: CherokeeCloud

 

Written: August 21, 2006

Grandma’s Hidden Memories

These memories and fears still fresh, she hid the secret that only today is revealed. This was a secret that has survived for almost two centuries by only being passed down and revealed upon the imminent death of the holder of the hidden memory. What kind of fear could hold a secret across countless generations? What atrocities were witnessed that brought shame for surviving, and hope for the resurrection of past glory.

  

Grandma’s fear of Indian ancestry exposure was much different than those today that claim descent from an “American Indian princess”. Many of those claiming Indian princess status are among white ethnic groups. I wonder why the claim of Indian ancestry does not bring fear to them, but rather a pride especially if the Indian ancestry is claimed along with a mixture of colonial descent. Is it the pride of a conqueror?

  

For African Americans with Indian ancestry you must bring Grandma’s hidden memories to light before they become deathbed confessions. Appreciate the rich legacy of two histories that demonstrate survival against all odds in yester-years and today. Express the future with promise of strength to continue to succeed against all odds.

 

It is your legacy and your life… don’t live it through hidden memories –make it a known reality.

 

What’s In A Haircut?

Hair and its length also denoted a method in which Europeans colonized the Native Americans. The native’s hair was cut to deny their cultural identity and make them more closely resemble the European images of civilized culture. Short hair for some American Indian tribal affiliations was worn by mourners, and shingled hair (cut in tapered layers) by cowards.

  

A native saying by Paiute Indian, states,” You ask me to cut grass and make hay and sell it and be rich like white men, but how dare I cut my mother's hair?”

  

This saying indicates the extent to which native hair is treasured in some tribal cultures. To cut hair in this context is to bring shame upon a person for it is tied with religious and ancestral beliefs.

  

African Americans have also viewed hair in positive and negative ways. Seeking to resemble European culture for assimilation and approval, hair has taken on controversy over the centuries. As hair is a symbol of identity for many African Americans, it has changed from naturals/afros, to press-n-curl, to perms and hair straighteners, to Jheri Curls, to cornrow braiding, and back again.

  

Hair also is a means of identifying and stereotyping African Americans. Many have heard the saying that ‘if an African American has naturally straight hair it is based on their racial composition including a mixture of Native American or European’. This is simply a stereotype as African peoples have many and varied textures of hair from their predecessors in Africa.

  

Amongst African American people are the myths of ‘cutting hair on the moon’ to grow it and thicken it. These myths are also part of the emphasis on hair and cultural preferences. Very little proof has been noted to substantiate this claim.

  

Throughout history both men and women have been noted for their ethnic and cultural hair lengths and styles. Notably famous historic Native Americans, Red Cloud, Black Elk, Tecumpseh, Crazy Horse were known for their hair. Notably famous historic and modern African Americans, Frederick Douglass, hair entrepreneur Madame C. J. Walker, and boxing promoter, Don King are characterized by hair.

  

Thus, before making general statements about ‘what’s in a hair cut?’ it is best to note the historic context, social leaning, and cultural significance of hair. Long, short, or in between hair significance depends upon the person. Ethnic and cultural identity is in the heart, its outward manifestations are only sometimes in the hair. Seek your belief and hold on to it.

 

Article by: CherokeeCloud

written August 17,2006        

Learning a New Language

The Native Language is not part of the American educational system. It is not even part of foreign language (or foreign to English speaking populations) selection. Instead Spanish, French, German, Chinese, and Italian are offered in most foreign language studies. These offerings perpetuate the establishment of a non-native society.

There is power in language. The use of language to bond people in purpose is evident. Likewise, denial of Native Americans to learn and speak their native tongue weakens them and helps to destroy their community. The historical forceful mandate to only communicate in the European languages, specifically English, forced Native Americans to assimilate into the European culture, lifestyle, and community. It hindered the ability for Native Americans to keep their culture alive. It was indeed cultural genocide.

To encourage the revitalization of Native American languages determine your tribal affiliation and learn its language. Start with the basics, which are conversational words or phrases such as hello, good-bye, how are you?, and others basic words or greetings. This is a good start. Continue to build on this effort each day learning new words or phrases. Then begin to introduce your family and friends to the language. This renews the Native American language and brings you closer to reclaiming culture and heritage.

Article by CherokeeCloud -8/16/2006

Want to learn Native American Language?

contact:CherokeeCloud at “blackredroots@yahoo.com”

FIRST NATION HISTORY (P)

Clothing and housing were also similar – buckskin and semi-permanent villages of medium-sized longhouses and wigwams. For this reason, it is difficult today to distinguish between the site of a Pequot village and that of another tribe. The main difference being that Pequot villages were almost always heavily fortified. The Pequot were not that much larger than the tribes surrounding them, but they differed from other Algonquin in their political structure. Highly organized, the strong central authority exercised by their tribal council and grand sachem gave the Pequot a considerable military advantage over their neighbors. In this way, the Pequot were more like the Narragansett of Rhode Island and the Mahican of New York's Hudson Valley (with whom they are frequently confused).  

Pocumtuc 

Like other New England Algonquin, the Pocumtuc were an agriculture people who lived in one of the most fertile farming areas in New England. Their homeland also abounded with game, and during the spring they were able to take advantage of large fish runs up the Connecticut and its tributaries. Besides the obvious north-south transportation provided by the Connecticut River (Quinnitukqut "long river"), the Pocumtuc homeland sat astride several important east-west trade routes, including the Mohawk Trail, which linked Native Americans in the interior with those on the Atlantic coast.   

Potawatomi 

The Potawatomi name is a translation of the Ojibwe "potawatomink" meaning "people of the place of fire." Similar renderings of this are: Fire Nation, Keepers of the Sacred Fire, and People of the Fireplace – all of which refer to the role of the Potawatomi as the keeper of the council fire in an earlier alliance with the Ojibwe and Ottawa.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (O)

Ottawa  

The Ottawa (also Odawa, or Odaawaa), meaning "traders," are a Native American and First Nations people. They are related to but distinct from the Ojibwe nation. They lived near the northern shores of Lake Huron. There are approximately 15,000 Ottawa living in Michigan, Ontario, and Oklahoma. The Ottawa language, like the Ojibwe language, is part of the Algonquian language family.The Ottawas and Chippewas (or Ojibways) were kinfolk and allies who spoke different dialects of the same language (just like most Americans and Canadians speak English, but with different accents). However, also like America and Canada, the Chippewa and Ottawa tribes were culturally and politically independent, with distinct leadership and customs. After Europeans arrived, some groups of Ottawas and Ojibways banded together for safety's sake, but in most cases, the two nations remain independent.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (Ni)

Nipissing 

Probably their most interesting feature was their reputation among other tribes for the spiritual power of their shamans. Unfortunately, some of their neighbors were also prone to accusing them of sorcery as a result.   

Nipmuc 

The Nipmuc generally lived along rivers or on the shores of small lakes and seem to have occupied the area for as far back as can be told. Like other New England Algonquin, the Nipmuc were agricultural. They changed locations according to the seasons, but always remained within the bounds of their own territory. Part of their diet came from hunting, fishing, and gathering of wild food, but as a rule they did not live as well as the coastal tribes who had the luxury of seafood. Each group was ruled by its own sachem, but there was very little political organization beyond the village or band level.

Recipe of the Week: Indian Pudding

INDIAN PUDDING 

1/2 cup yellow cornmeal
4 c. milk
1 c. molasses
1 tsp. ginger
1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix the corn meal and milk together, and cook in a double boiler for half an hour. Add the molasses, ginger, and salt. Pour into buttered pudding dish. Baking in a very slow oven 300 degrees Fahrenheit for 3 hours. 

Serve hot with:

Molasses Sauce
1/2 cups black molasses
1 tbsp. butter
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger
1/4 cup heavy cream

Put all ingredients into a small saucepan. Allow to come to a boil. Cook to the consistency of heavy cream. Pour the molasses sauce over the Indian Pudding and serve.

Sachem

What is Sachem? – A chief of a Native American tribe or confederation, especially an Algonquian chief. A member of the ruling council of the Iroquois confederacy.

Indian Pudding

What is Indian Pudding? – This hearty, old-fashioned dessert originated in New England. It is a spicy, cornmeal-molasses baked pudding that can sometimes include sliced apples.

Narragansett Indian Meal

Special foods of the Narragansett Indians were succotash, quahog chowser, johnny cakes, corn chowder, strawberries, and Indian pudding.

Wampum Quahog Shell

Wampum quahog shell (round shell of a clam) was never used as money. It was given to demonstrate honor and respect. It was also used to record historical events and used for decoration. The deepest purple quahog shell is considered the most valued.

Native Elders

Elders are considered the most important people in the tribe. They provide insight into traditional native life. Elders are treated with honor and respect.

Narragansett Indian Men

The traditional Narragansett Indian men would not only provide for his family but would provide for others in need. This tradition continues today.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (Na – Ne)

The Tribe and its members were considered warriors within the region. The Narragansett customarily offered protection to smaller tribes in the area. Certain Nipmuck bands, the Niantics, Wampanoag, and Manisseans all paid tribute to the Narragansett tribe. These tribes all resided in areas of Rhode Island at the time of the first European settlement around 1635. In 1636, Roger Williams acquired land use rights to Providence from the Narragansett Sachems. The colonists quickly came into contact with both the Narragansett and Niantic Sachems, most notably Ninigret.  

Nauset 

The Nauset are an Algonquian tribe formerly living in Massachusetts, on that part of Cape Cod east of Bass river, forming a part of or being under control of the Wampanoag. The Nauset Indian tribe were the original inhabitants of the Cape Cod peninsula, in Massachusetts. Like their neighbours, the Wampanoag and Narraganset peoples, the Nauset spoke an N-Dialect of the Algonquin language. With a similar culture and language, very little distinguishes the Nauset except for perhaps their heavier reliance upon the ocean. Their location on the Cape made them easy targets to European slave raids, often kidnapped and sold into the Caribbean.When Samuel de Champlain encountered the Nauset Indians, they were expectedly very hostile. The Pilgrims made contact with the Nauset during their initial landing near modern-day Provincetown, and stole maize. Their isolation proved beneficial, as they were not subject to the purges following King Phillip's War, but many fell victim to diseases introduced by the Europeans. The Nauset eventually merged into the Wampanoag tribe. The town of Mashpee, whose native inhabitants are considered Wampanoag, probably are more likely descended from members of the Nauset tribe, and number around 1,100 people. The area known as Hyannis is named after the Nauset sachem Iyannough.

Neutral

 

An important confederation of Iroquoian tribes living in the 17th century north of Lake Erie in Ontario, having four villages east of Niagara river on territory extending to the Genesee watershed; the western bounds of these tribes were indefinitely west of Detroit river and Lake St Clair. The Neutrals were a tribe of American Indians who lived in what is now upstate New York and southern Ontario. Their own name for themselves has been lost, but they were called Attawandaron by the Hurons, meaning "people of a slightly different language". The name Neutral was applied to them by the French because they tried to be neutral between the warring Huron and Iroquois peoples. During the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois conquered and absorbed the Neutral tribe in the year 1651. Some of the Neutrals seem to have had a close relationship with the Erielhonan people, and some of their neighbors referred to them collectively as the "Cat nation".

FIRST NATION HISTORY (Mo)

In the following war Uncas advanced himself as a true ally of the English, and was a great force toward the destruction of his erstwhile people. But Sassacus and some other Pequots managed to flee from the massacre. He went with his followers back to the Mahicans, with whom he hoped to hide. However, the Mahicans, in the meantime, had become subject to the Mohawks, who had conquered them. The Mohawks beheaded Sassacus and sent his head to Hartford, Connecticut as proof of their loyalty.

 

 

Montagnais 

The Montagnais are a group of people located originally in Labrador, Canada.  They received their name from the French, meaning "mountaineers". There are many ways to spell the name of these people including Montagnar, Moatagne, Montagnie, and Montainier.     Labrador is located in the northeastern part of North America.  Most of the Montagnais groups were located along the Gulf of the St. Lawrence.  This accounts for why the French gave them the name Montagnais, due in large part to the ruggedness of the land along the St. Lawrence. The Montagnais, also called Innu, belong to the Algonquian language family. They number more than 14,700 in Quebec, of whom over 10,400 live on-reserve. It is the largest First Nation in population in Quebec. Its territory extends from the North Shore to Lac Saint-Jean. There are nine Montagnais communities in Quebec. The Montagnais traditionally led a nomadic lifestyle

FIRST NATION HISTORY (Mi)

Micmac 

The Mi'kmaq Nation was a member of the Wabanaki Confederacy that controlled much of New England and the Canadian Maritimes. The Micmacs are original natives of the Nova Scotia/New Brunswick region. They moved into Quebec, Newfoundland, and Maine later, but they were well-established in those locations by the time Europeans arrived. Today, most Mi'kmaq people live on the Canadian side of the border, but one band, the Aroostook, lives in northeastern Maine. Like most American Indian tribes of Canada, the Micmac people live on reserves which belong to them and are legally under their control. Each Micmac tribe, known as a "band" or "First Nation" in Canada, is politically independent and has its own leadership (although in some cases several Mi'kmaq nations have formed coalitions to address common problems). However the Canadian government still considers the Micmacs citizens and controls some of their decisions. There is also one Micmac reservation in Maine which is similarly overseen by the US government. Each Mi'kmaq First Nation has its own government, laws, police, and other services, just like a small country.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (Me)

Metoac 

It was the Metoac's grave misfortune to occupy the northern shore of Long Island which was the source of the best wampum (beads of shells strung in strands and used by American Indians as money) in the Northeast. Each summer, the Metoac harvested clam shells from the waters of Long Island Sound which, during the winter, were painstakingly fashioned into small beads. Strung together in long strands, they were called "wampompeag" – shortened somewhat by the English colonists into the more familiar form of "wampum" …the Dutch called it siwan (sewan). The Metoac traded this painstakingly crafted product to other tribes (most notably the Mahican) and prospered as a result. Passed from tribe to tribe, Long Island wampum made its way as far west as the Black Hills of South Dakota. The strings of shell beads were sometimes employed as a rudimentary currency in native trade, but it was also valued for personal decoration. Arranged into belts whose designs could convey ideas, wampum was also employed in native diplomacy to bind important agreements such as war and peace.

Notable Massachusett Indians

The Massachusett Indian tribe had several notables. The included Job Nasutan who worked with missionary John Eliot to translate the bible into Algonquin, and Crispus Attucks, killed in the Boston Massacre was the son a free black and a Massachuset Indian mother.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (Mas)

Mattabesic 

It is not uncommon to run across some mention of the Wappinger, Paugussett, and Mattabesic Confederations, but these political organizations never really existed. In fact, the Mattabesic were not even a tribe within the usual meaning of the word but instead a collection of a dozen, or so, small tribes which shared a common language, culture, and geographic area. The name of the Mattabesic comes from a single village on the Connecticut River near Middletown, but beyond their hereditary sachems whose authority was usually limited to a few villages, the Mattabesic tribes did not have a unifying political structure. It also does not take a great deal of arithmetic to realize that, with 60 villages and 10,000 people, their villages were small, and the population of many of the individual tribes was less than 500.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (K)

Initially, most moved to the lands assigned them, but many remained in central Illinois and refused to leave until they were forcibly removed by the military in 1834. Fewer than half actually stayed on their Missouri reserve. Several bands wandered south and west until the Kickapoo were spread across Oklahoma and Texas all the way to the Mexican border (and beyond). In 1832 the Missouri Kickapoo exchanged their reserve for lands in northeast Kansas. After the move, factions developed, and in 1852, a large group left and moved to Chihuahua in northern Mexico. Apparently, there were Kickapoo already living there by this time. These Mexican Kickapoo were joined by others between 1857 and 1863. Few remained in Kansas. Between 1873 and 1878, approximately half of the Mexican Kickapoo returned to the United States and were sent to Oklahoma. Currently, there are three federally-recognized Kickapoo tribes: the Kickapoo of Kansas; the Kickapoo of Oklahoma; and the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas.

FIRST NATION HISTORY (I)

Iroquois 

About 1390, today's State of New York became the stronghold of five powerful Indian tribes. They were later joined by another great tribe, the Tuscaroras from the south. Eventually the Iroquois, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, and Cayugas joined together to form the great Iroquois Nation. In 1715, the Tuscaroras were accepted into the Iroquois Nation. The Conferacy was made up of six groups: Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. They called themselves Iroquois. They were big rivals with the Algonquians. White men called this group the League of Six Nations.

Seminole Indians

These groups were to become known as Seminoles. The word "Seminole" is derived from the Muskogee word "simano-li," taken originally from the Spanish "cimmarron." meaning wild or runaway. Starting in 1810, the U.S. Government fought three wars against determined groups of Seminole men, women and children who were fighting for their homes and their freedom. The objective of the U.S. Government was to open new lands to white settlers.

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION: http://keyshistory.org/seminolespage1.html

 

Choctaw Indians

In the nineteenth century, they were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes," so-called because they had integrated a number of cultural and technological "practices" of Europeans. The Choctaws are famous for their extreme generosity in providing famine relief during the Irish Potato Famine.

 

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION: http://www.mongabay.com/indigenous_ethnicities/north_american/Choctaw.html

 

Creek Natives

The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling.

Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Muscogee and speak a Creek language as well.

The Creeks are one of the Five Civilized Tribes.

FOR MORE INFORMATION: http://www.mongabay.com/indigenous_ethnicities/north_american/Creek.html

Sidney Poitier to Receive Philadelphia’s Marian Anderson Award

BlackNews.com Aug 1 2006 1:43PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r598568129&f=355.

Archaeologists Unearth Slave Tomb, Looking For Clues About The ‘Black Paul Bunyan’

BlackNews.com Aug 1 2006 1:54PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r598574841&f=355.

Black Author and Educator Releases New Book About Breaking the Cycle of Abusive Relationships

BlackNews.com Aug 1 2006 8:45PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r598854202&f=355.

‘The Little Black Man’s Book’ Helps Black Parents Raise Their Man-Child

BlackNews.com Aug 1 2006 9:42PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r598883381&f=355.

Lawyers Allowed To Quit Michael Jackson Case

BlackNews.com Aug 2 2006 2:29PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r599471877&f=355.

More Free Resources For African American Students and Parents

BlackNews.com Aug 2 2006 3:09PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r599500092&f=355.

Deep South Center for Environmental Justice to Hold Katrina Survivors Forum in Houston, Texas

BlackNews.com Aug 2 2006 8:01PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r599688771&f=355.

Leaders Join the Prostate Health Education Network (PHEN) at Second Black Prostate Cancer Disparity.

BlackNews.com Aug 2 2006 9:25PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r599743488&f=355.

Kehsi Iman Wilson Crowned The First Miss Teen African American

BlackNews.com Aug 3 2006 6:51PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r600594997&f=355.

Black Model Spills Hollywood Secrets in New Book

BlackNews.com Aug 4 2006 6:30PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r601610786&f=355.

Job Discrimination for Blacks Takes New Turn

BlackNews.com Aug 4 2006 7:40PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r601658962&f=355.

16-Year Old Contestant From Trinidad Wins International Scholarship Pageant

BlackNews.com Aug 4 2006 8:36PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r601696978&f=355.

Feds to Investigate Post-Katrina Bridge Blockade

BlackNews.com Aug 7 2006 2:40AM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r603287622&f=355.

Black Sex: A Healthy Sex Life Starts With Nutrition

BlackNews.com Aug 7 2006 2:55AM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r603293187&f=355.

BET News Guides One-Year Look Back on Disaster, Recovery and Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

BlackNews.com Aug 7 2006 1:53PM GMT
Read more at: http://c.moreover.com/click/here.pl?r603631012&f=355.

Navajos riveted by Farrakhan’s words

WINDOW ROCK, Ariz. – In the evolution of dismantling the forces of racism and oppression, Minister Louis Farrakhan’s visit to the Navajo Nation has claimed a place in history, say Navajos empower
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413393.

Keweenaw Bay victory could help landowners

KEWEENAW BAY, Mich. – Homeowners throughout Indian country could benefit if the recent U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision in favor of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community remains unchallenged. A thre
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413407.

A lineup of lobbyists

Part one
Editors’ note: This is the first in a two-part series on lobbyists in Indian country.
WASHINGTON – Everyone agrees that the best lobbyists for tribe
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413403.

Settlement number in Cobell remains elusive

WASHINGTON – A week of escalations in the suspense over a sum to settle the Cobell v. Kempthorne trust funds litigation ended in perfect character for such a convoluted lawsuit – the money went missin
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413400.

Pombo steers gaming bill to full House

Analysis
WASHINGTON – The Resources Committee in the House of Representatives has sent a bill that would end reservation shopping to the full House by a vote of 27 in favor and nine
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413402.

Farrakhan addresses Navajo Nation Council

WINDOW ROCK, Ariz. – Minister Louis Farrakhan, speaking to the Navajo Nation Council, received applause and a standing ovation as he challenged Navajos toward self-reliance based on their wisdom, tale
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413404.

Gaming act changes sink under Senate holds

WASHINGTON – A cluster of holds on a Senate bill to amend the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act has forced its sponsor to acknowledge that the time for overcoming them grows short in an election year. Sen.
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413406.

Health program funding awaits Senate approval

Other monies proposed for environmental protection
SEATTLE – The Urban Indian Health Program has allocated $32.7 million in a spending bill now before the Senate for approval. The
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413401.

Curanderos at ‘El Cachote’

Eloy Rodriguez and the cloud forest
SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, Dominican Republic – Even here in these ancient mountains that mesmerized and paralyzed the Spanish conquistadors, where the
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413449.

Washington in Brief

Artman nominated to BIA top post, Tribal Labor Relations Act gets a late hearing
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413448.

Rights of way draft report spells trouble

WASHINGTON – A draft report on tribal rights of way, commissioned by Congress from the departments of Energy and the Interior, has been referred to the White House by the departments, according to Pau
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413447.

Cobell legislation hopes fade in committee

WASHINGTON – Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., announced Aug. 2 that the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs will withhold a bill to settle the Cobell v. Kempthorne trust funds lawsuit from
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413445.

Interior’s probate reform proceeds

RAPID CITY, S.D. – Probate reform, as proposed by the Department of the Interior, has left as many questions as solutions for tribal leaders. During the first of the final three consultation meetings
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413446.

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (H)

Houma

The Houma Tribe is a band of Choctaw Indians who separated from the main body of the tribe and settled near the junction of the Red and Mississippi Rivers before the French explorer La Salle arrived in 1682. Because their war emblem is the saktce-ho’ma, or Red Crawfish, anthropologist John R. Swanton has speculated that the Houma are an offshoot of the Yazoo River region’s Chakchiuma tribe, whose name is a corruption of saktce-ho’ma. Individuals in the tribe maintained contact with other Choctaw communities even after settling in lower Lafourche-Terrebonne. It is not certain exactly how the Houma came to settle near the mouth of the Red River, formerly the River of the Houma. We only know that the French explorers found them at the site of present-day Angola, Louisiana, unaware that their lands would soon be part of the French colony of Louisiana. 

Huron 

The Huron Indians were a proud Indian nation with a well-defined governmental system. The Huron nation was divided into sub-tribes or clans. Their history is filled with wars, which led to loss of territory and forced many sub-tribes to relocate to safer territory. The Huron were not nomadic tribes; they had many great villages each with its own government representative. The Huron lived in communal dwellings consisting of large log style homes . Most log houses ranged between 45-55 meters or 150- 180 ft long. They were made of slabs of bark over pole frames. The longest log house ever found measured 125m and was found in New York. During the peaceful years the Huron’s hunted and fished and used bows and arrows and spears. The Huron were able to catch almost anything they wanted to eat. They were a diverse group of people who lead a very diverse life and had a direct impact on the land and the people who inhabited it.

The Huron government was divided into a republican style of government; the larger villages were captains for peace during times of conflict, each large village had a well-defined jurisdiction. The tribes in the Huron nation each have their own distinct past and heritage. The Huron nation was divided into sub-tribes also called clans. The major sub-nations of the Huron are the Arendahronon (rock sub-tribe), the Attigneenongnahac (bear sub-tribe), the Attignawantan (cord sub-tribe), and the Tahontaenrat (deer sub-tribe). The Huron nation did not always exist in such peace and harmony. The history of the Huron depicts a once-proud Indian nation that suffered through many wars and lost many people and territory.

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (E)

The name Erie is a shortened form of Erielhonan, a word which means ‘long tail’ in the language of the Iroquois. This is in reference to the mountain lion which roamed the domain of these people. The Erie, in fact, spoke a derivation of the Iroquois language which was, apparently similar to that of the Huron. The Erie managed to elude contact with the white man. Apart from one brief encounter, the French were not able to reach them. Neither were the Dutch or the Swedish, although they did hear about them from other tribes. Information about their culture and living conditions has, therefore been passed on to historians through second hand accounts from members of other tribes, most notably the Huron.

From them we learn that the Erie lived in scattered villages which were stockaded for protection. Their homes were the traditional long house that could house several families. They were, like most of the surrounding tribes, farmers and hunters. The main crops were corn, beans and squash. Following the harvest they would embark on the winter hunt. During this time they would live in winter camps. Like many of the eastern tribes the Erie were the traditional enemies of the Iroquois. They were, apparently, fearsome warriors.

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (D)

Delaware 

The name "Delaware" was given to the people who lived along the Delaware River, and the river in turn was named after Lord de la Warr, the governor of the Jamestown colony. The name Delaware later came to be applied to almost all Lenape people. In the language, which belongs to the Algonquian language family, the Delaware call themselves LENAPE (len-NAH-pay) which means something like "The People." The Delaware ancestors were among the first Indians to come in contact with the Europeans (Dutch, English, & Swedish) in the early 1600s. The Delaware were called the "Grandfather" tribe because they were respected by other tribes as peacemakers since they often served to settle disputes among rival tribes. The Delaware were also known for their fierceness and tenacity as warriors when they had to fight, however, they preferred to choose a path of peace with the Europeans and other tribes.

Broccoli & Wild Rice Casserole

Recipe of The Week: Broccoli and Wild Rice Casserole

Broccoli & Wild Rice Casserole

 

Tribal Affiliation : Saxon, Ojibway & Lesh (Polish)

 

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by Deborah Running Behind

 Ingredients

  • salt & pepper to taste
  • 6 oz. cream cheese, softened
  • 1 onion, chopped fine
  • 2 cups cooked, chopped broccoli
  • 4 cups cooked wild rice
  • Note: Feel free to vary the amounts to suit your personal taste(s)!

 Directions Stir together all ingredients in a buttered baking dish.

Bake in a 350-degree (F) oven for 20-30 minutes.

Recipe of The Week: Broccoli and Wild Rice Casserole

Broccoli & Wild Rice Casserole

 

Tribal Affiliation : Saxon, Ojibway & Lesh (Polish)

 

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by Deborah Running Behind

 Ingredients

  • salt & pepper to taste
  • 6 oz. cream cheese, softened
  • 1 onion, chopped fine
  • 2 cups cooked, chopped broccoli
  • 4 cups cooked wild rice
  • Note: Feel free to vary the amounts to suit your personal taste(s)!

 Directions Stir together all ingredients in a buttered baking dish.

Bake in a 350-degree (F) oven for 20-30 minutes.  

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (C)

Variously described as the Unconquered and Unconquerable or the Spartans of the lower Mississippi Valley, the Chickasaw were the most formidable warriors of the American Southeast, and anyone who messed with them came to regret it, if they survived! British traders from the Carolinas were quick to recognize their prowess in this regard and armed the Chickasaw to the teeth, after which, no combination of the French and their native allies was able to dislodge the Chickasaw from the stranglehold they imposed upon French commerce on the lower Mississippi. The Chickasaw could cut New France in two, which seriously crippled the French in any war with the British. From the high ground overlooking the Mississippi River at Memphis, the Chickasaw took on all comers, including tribes four to five times their size and never lost until they picked the wrong side in the American Civil War. Even then, the Chickasaw Nation was the last Confederate government to surrender to Union forces.

 

Chitimacha 

To enhance their appearance, the Chitimacha flattened the foreheads of their male children. Most men wore their hair long, but there were occasional reports of some of their warriors having a scalplock. With the mild climate, male clothing was limited to a breechcloth which allowed a display of their extensive tattooing of the face, body, arms and legs. Women limited themselves to a short skirt. Their hair was also worn long but usually braided. Socially, the Chitimacha were divided into matrilineal (descent traced through the mother) totemic (named for an animal) clans. The most distinctive characteristic of Chitimacha society was their strict caste system of two ranked groups: nobles and commoners. The separation between them included the use of two distinct dialects with commoners required to address nobles in the proper language. The Chitimacha were unique among Native Americans with their practice of strict endogamy (a person can only marry someone from their own group). A noble man or woman who married a commoner forfeited their higher status.   

Comanche 

Wrestling horses was common among the plains tribes, but like everything else concerning the horse, Comanches did it on a grand scale. As the number of Spanish horses in New Mexico became inadequate, Comanche raids reached south into Texas and Mexico. By 1775 the Spanish governor of New Mexico was complaining that, despite constant re-supply from Mexico, Comanche raiders had wrestled so many horses he did not have enough to pursue them.

The Comanche epitomized the mounted plains warrior. Until the 1750s, they often employed leather armor and large body shields to protect both horse and rider. This changed with increased use of firearms and quickly changed into the stereotypical light cavalry tactics associated with plains warfare. This development first forced the Spanish, and later Texans and Americans, to cope with a new style of mounted warfare. They did not do very well at first. European cavalry had evolved into heavy-armed dragoons designed to break massed-infantry formations. There was no way these soldiers could stay with mounted Comanches who usually left them eating dust ..if they could find them in the first place. The Texas Rangers were organized during the 1840s primarily to fight Comanches. A decade later, when the American army began to assume much of the Rangers' responsibility, it had much to learn.  

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (B)

Bayougoula 

Dogs were the only animal domesticated by Native Americans before the horse, but the Bayougoula in 1699 kept small flocks of turkeys. The tribes of the lower Mississippi were also unique in that tribal territories were well defined. Decorated with fish heads and bear bones, a large red post near the mouth of the Red River marked the boundary between the Bayougoula and the Houma just to the north. Translated into French, the location of this "Red Post" became known as Baton Rouge, the present-day capital of Louisiana. 

Beothuk 

One thing that is known about the Beothuk was their love of the color red. While the use of red ocre was common among Native Americans, no other tribe used it as extensively as the Beothuk. They literally covered everything – their bodies, faces, hair, clothing, personal possessions, and tools – with a red paint made from powdered ochre mixed with either fish oil or animal grease. It was also employed in burials. The reasons are unknown, but speculation has ranged from their religion (about which we know very little) to protection from insects. The practice was so excessive, even the Micmac referred to them as the Red Indians, and it is believed the term "redskin" used for Native Americans probably originated from early contacts between European fishermen and Beothuk.

FIRST NATION HISTORY

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY 

Abenaki Native Americans have occupied northern New England for at least 10,000 years. There is no proof these ancient residents were ancestors of the Abenaki, but there is no reason to think they were not. 

Acolapissa The mild climate of the lower Mississippi required little clothing. Acolapissa men limited themselves pretty much to a breechcloth, women a short skirt, and children ran nude until puberty. With so little clothing with which to adorn themselves, the Acolapissa were fond of decorating their entire bodies with tattoos. In cold weather a buffalo robe or feathered cloak was added for warmth. 

Algonkin If for no other reason, the Algonkin would be famous because their name has been used for the largest native language group in North America. The downside is the confusion generated, and many people do not realize there actually was an Algonkin tribe, or that all Algonquins do not belong to the same tribe. Although Algonquin is a common language group, it has many many dialects, not all of which are mutually intelligible.

(Nations listed in Alphabetical Order) 

See: http://www.tolatsga.org/Compacts.html

Fry Bread & Indian Tacos

Chickasaw Fry Bread

  • 2 cups sifted flour
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 4 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 egg
  • 1/2 cup warm milk

Stir first three ingredigents then stir in the beaten egg. Add milk to make the dough soft. Roll it out on floured bread board, knead lightly. Roll dough out to 1/2 inch thick.  Cut into strips 2 X 3 inches and slit the center. Drop into hot cooking oil and brown on both sides. Serve hot.

Creek Fry Bread

  • 2 cups flour
  • 1 cup buttermilk
  • 1 tbsp. baking powder
  • 1/4 tsp. salt

 

Sift flour,salt and baking powder then add milk and more flour to make dough stiff. Roll out onto floured bread board and cut into 4 X 4 squares with a slit in the center.
Fry in hot cooking oil until golden brown. Drain on plate with paper towels.

Cherokee Fry Bread

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 2 tsp. baking powder
  • 3/4 cup milk

Mix ingredigents adding more flour if necessary to make a stiff dough. Roll out the dough on a floured board till very thin. Cut into strips 2 X 3 inches and drop in hot cooking oil. Brown on both sides. Serve hot with honey. Note: Make certain the cooking oil is hot enough, or the fry breads will be doughy, undercooked, and oily.  Cherokee Hard BreadThis bread was made for long journeys and used the batter recipe listed above but was rolled out into donut shapes and baked until very hard. After the bread was baked it was laid out in the sun until it was dry and even harder. The bread was then strung on a cord like beads so it could be easily carried. At meals the bread was stewed or moistened with other liquids to make it soft enough to eat.   

Honey Fry Bread 

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 cup wheat flour
  • 1/4 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 tbsp. sugar
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 2 cup vegetable oil

Mix the flours, salt, sugar and baking powder together. Add about 1/2 cup water and mix well, adding a bit more water if needed to make a stiff dough. Roll it out on lightly floured surface and knead until dough becomes elastic and smooth. Let it stand for 10 minutes. Cut into squares, strips, or circles about 1/2 thick. Deep fry in very hot oil until golden brown. Drain on paper towels. Drizzle honey over bread and serve immediately.   

Navajo Fry Bread

  • 1 quart cooking oil
  • 3 cups sifted flour
  • 1 T. baking powder
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 1 cup warm water

Heat oil to 360 degrees in a heavy 5 qt saucepan. Stir together the flour, baking powder and salt. Gradually stir in water, knead dough until no longer sticky. Cover and let stand 15 minutes. Pull off 2 in. balls of dough. On lightly floured surface, roll each ball into a circle about 1/4 inch thick. Pierce circles of dough several times with a fork.

Deep fry until both side are golden. (about 3-4 minutes) Drain and serve with honey, powdered sugar or jam. Note: Fry bread may be wrapped airtight and frozen up to 3 months. Reheat in a foil packet in a 350-degree oven for 15 minutes. Before serving open the foil to allow the fry bread to dry out on the outside.

Old Fashioned Fry Bread

  • 4 cups flour
  • 2 tbsp. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 cup shortening
  • 1 cup warm water

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Gradually add in the shortening and water. Add only enough water to make dough stick together. Knead dough until smooth, make into fist-sized balls. Cover them with a towel for 10 minutes then pat them out into circles about the size of a pancake. Fry in hot cooking oil in cast iron skillet until brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels, serve with jam.

 

 

Osage Fry Bread

  • 4 cups all purpose flour
  • 2 tsp salt
  • 1 tbsp and a half baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon melted shortening
  • 2 cups warm milk
  • shortening for deep frying

Sift flour, salt and baking powder into bowl. Stir in shortening and milk. Knead the dough into a ball. Roll out dough on lightly floured board. Cut into diamond shapes and slice a slit in the center. Heat shortening in deep fryer to 370 degrees. Fry 2 or 3 at a time until golden brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels.

 

 

Seminole Fry Bread

  • 2 cups flour
  • 3 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1 cup milk

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Add milk gradually making sure the dough is stiff. Put on floured bread board and pat it out with your hands until it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into strips with a slit in the center. Fry in hot oil until both sides are golden brown.   

Traditional Indian Fry Bread

  • 1 pkg. dry yeast
  • 3 cups warm water
  • 1 tbsp. salt
  • 1 tbsp. sugar
  • 6 cups flour
  • 2 tbsp.oil
  • 1/2 cup cornmeal

Disolve yeast in warm water then add salt and sugar. Let stand for 5 minutes covered with a towel. Add flour and oil to liquid mixture. Mix and put on floured bread board and knead until mixture is smooth. Put dough in a greased bowl, cover with towel and let it rise for 1 1/2 hours. Remove from bowl and put on bread board, knead in the 1/2 cornmeal. Make dough into 2 balls rolling each into 12 inch circles 1/2 inch thick. Cut into 2 inch squares and drop into hot cooking oil. (Works best with cast iron skillet.) Fry 5 to 6 pieces at a time for only a few moments. Drain on paper towel and sprinkle with white powdered sugar. 

 

Filled Fry Bread

Use one of the bread recipes above. Roll the dough out extra thin and cut into slices about 4 X 6 inches and put a small amount of chopped cooked beef or chicken on each piece. Fold the dough over and pinch the edges. Fry in hot oil until browned.

 

Indian Tacos

Fry some ground beef until it is nicely browned, seasoning the meat with salt and pepper to taste. Drain away the excess fat, and spread a layer of the meat onto a piece of hot Navajo Fry Bread. Then add shredded lettuce, shredded cheese, chopped onions and chopped tomatoes. Um…very tasty!  

Redman’s Cornbread

Redman's Cornbread  

 

Ingredients

  • 2 cups water ground cornmeal
  • 1 can whole stewed tomatoes
  • 1 chopped onion
  • Salt and Pepper to taste
  • pot of hot oil (preferably after frying fish)

 

Directions

In a large bowl add cornmeal, salt and pepper. Dump in the juice from the canned tomatoes, and squish the tomatoes through your fingers into the bowl. Add chopped onions. Mix all together. Drop by the teaspoon full into the hot oil and fry until golden brown.

 

Recipe Contributor:

Contributor : clptoes

Tribal Affiliation : Creek from Georgia

Orgin of Recipe : My grandma, great aunts and great grandmother. This is traditional in our family at fish fries.

 

Type of Dish : Contemporary & Traditional 

Fried Corn

Fried CornComanche

 
Ingredients

  • 1 large onion(white or yellow)
  • Bacon,(half a pound)
  • Corn(about 8 ears)
  • Salt and black pepper to taste

 

Directions:

First you shuck the corn and wash, then cut it with a real sharp knife, you want to skim the top of the kernels off.

Then scrape the cob to get all the juice out of it.

Then you fry the bacon real good, leave the grease in the pot (black pot works best).

Cut and sauté the onion in the grease till it is clear.

Add the corn and the salt and pepper.

Simmer over a low heat and stir often so it doesn't stick.

Note: You can leave some of the bacon in, but we always use it to make a sandwich with while we cook the corn.

 

Tribal Affiliation : Comanche Nation

 

Origin of Recipe: Offered by Linda Ransome

            (who learned this from her great grandmother, who was Comanche.)

 

 Type of Dish : Today's Native Dishes 

Eggs & Wild Onions

Eggs & Wild Onions  –Cherokee

 

Ingredients

  • Water
  • 6 eggs
  • Bacon grease or butter for frying.
  • About 2 dozen young, tender wild onions

  

Directions:

Coarsely chop the onions.
Steam them for a few minutes with a little water. 
(Cover them and cook until they are limp)
Add eggs and stir to scramble them.
Add butter or grease, salt and pepper to taste.
Fry like scrambled eggs until they are as done as you like.
Best if not overcooked, though.
Serve hot

Tribal Affiliation : Cherokee

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by LeeAnn Dreadfulwater

Type of Dish : Contemporary & Tradional

Fruit Salad

Grandmal Talkington Fruit Dish

 Tribal Affiliation : Cherokee …. West Virginia back woods …  

 Ingredients:

·          12 paw paws West Virginia banana's peeled and sliced

·          Some powdered sugar about a cup and a half

·          Coffee can full elder berries

·          1 cup black berries

·          7 big strawberries sliced

·          2 cups sliced green apples (young)

·          Hand full pitted cherries

·          12 small fried bread cut in half

·          2 hand fulls ice  

Directions If you can get paw paws get about

12 big ones peel and slice long ways. If not use 6 bananas

with turning spotted not real fresh its better.

Slice in half then long ways.

 

Clean and washed elder berries.

Clean and wash black berries.

We use to have garden fresh strawberries the really big ones she only used about seven or so. Slice thick

2 medium size green apples young ones are really tart sliced.(remember) to many will hurt your belly. Fresh cherries washed

Pitted… Roll all the fruit in ice till ice is melted. Then drain and roll in powdered sugar till all coated. Let dry on a cookie sheet till the fried bread is done and cool.

Put a small slit in the fried bread and scoop up some fruit sweet and cool treat for the kids grandmal made it all summer …

Note: you can keep the fruit in fridg for night snack too….

 

 

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by John Leasure … who's Grandmal made this in the summer for us kids.

 

Type of Dish : Contemporary & Tradional

Navajo-Style Rice

Navajo-style Rice

 

Tribal Affiliation: Navajo

 

 Origin of Recipe: Offered by Brenda Draper

 
Ingredients

  • 4 cups white long grain rice
  • 4 strips of uncooked bacon, sliced in 1/4" strips
  • 1 green bell pepper, diced
  • 1 small yellow onion, diced
  • 1 8 oz. can tomato sauce
  • 7 cups cold water
  • salt and pepper to taste

 

Directions

1. Sauté the bacon over medium heat in a large skillet;

adding the bell peppers and onions when the bacon is

almost cooked.

2. Sauté, add the rice, stir frequently to prevent from

over browning.

3. When rice is slightly browned, add the tomato sauce and water.

4. Let come to a boil, cover and simmer on low for 30 -35 minutes

(The time varies according to region and elevation.)

Note: You can add a can of stewed tomatoes, diced green chili,

jalapenos, or substitute the bacon with ground beef, using about

a pound. Just remember to drain the fat before you add the rice

and continue with the cooking.

Native Recipes

Enjoy browsing a vast selection of Native American recipes. Foods from categories of beverages and teas, fruit and berries, grains and breads, plants and vegetables, seeds and nuts, fowl, fish, and meat. These indigenous, traditional and contemporary recipes from various regions.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND RECIPES: http://nativetech.nativeweb.org/recipes/index.php

NCAA and Native Mascots

In August 2005, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) banned the use of "hostile and abusive" Native American mascots from postseason tournaments. The use of Native American themed team names in U.S. professional sports is widespread and often controversial, with examples such as Chief Wahoo of the Cleveland Indians and the Washington Redskins.

Wampum

The Iroquois, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries.

What is Wampum?

What is Wampum?

The Iroquois, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries.

Policy of State of Virginia

In the state of Virginia, Native Americans face a unique problem. Virginia has no federally recognized tribes, largely due to Walter Ashby Plecker. In 1912, Plecker became the first registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, serving until 1946. Plecker believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" with its African American population. A law passed by the state's General Assembly recognized only two races, "white" and "colored". Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", leading to the destruction of records on the state's Native American community

What is New World Syndrome?

I heard Native Americans suffer from New World Syndrome. What is New World Syndrome?

New World Syndrome is a set of non-communicable diseases brought on by consumption of rich food. Native Americans are susceptible. It is characterized by obesity, heart disease, diabetes and shortened life span, believed to be brought on by a change from a traditional diet and exercise to a modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle.

Indian Removal and Reservations

American policy toward Native Americans has been an evolving process. In the late nineteenth century, reformers, in efforts to "civilize" Indians, adapted the practice of educating native children in Indian Boarding Schools. These schools, which were primarily run by Christians, proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their various Native American identities[6] and adopt European-American culture. There are also many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuses occurring at these schools.

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 gave United States citizenship to Native Americans, in part because of an interest by many to see them merged with the American mainstream, and also because of the heroic service of many Native American veterans in World War 1.

Excerpts from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States