Indians and the Revolutionary War

In fact, the last battle of the Revolutionary War was fought with the participation of the Ohio Shawnee on the side of the British at the Battle of Blue Licks on August 19, 1782.

The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), and had ceded a vast amount of Native American territory to the United States without informing the Native Americans. The United States initially treated the Native Americans who had fought with the British as a conquered people who had lost their land. When this proved impossible to enforce (the Native Americans had lost the war on paper, not on the battlefield), the policy was abandoned. The United States was eager to expand, and the national government initially sought to do so only by purchasing Native American land in treaties. The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy.

Excerpts from:

Recipe of the Week: Sun-Cooked Salsa

Sun-Cooked Salsa

Tribal Affiliation : Cherokee

Origin of Recipe : Offered by Offered by Susan Marie Smith-Kennedy …who learned this from a Family recipe


  • 2 pounds chopped fresh tomatoes
  • ½ cup chopped red or Texas onion
  • ½ pound chopped fresh tomatillos (Mexican husk tomato)
  • 1 tablespoon Red Wine Vinegar
  • ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro
  • ¼ cup chopped fresh basil
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 to 2 teaspoon(s) Goya Adobo seasoning w/ cumino (has salt)
  • ¼ teaspoon fresh ground pepper
  • ¼ teaspoon sugar


Directions Feel free to adjust ingredients and measurements.
Add or omit according to your personal taste/preference.
Combine all ingredients in a large jar.
Cover the jar lightly with a layer of cheesecloth, secure, and place in a sunny spot for 4 hours.

Recipe of the Week: Navajo -style Rice

Navajo-style Rice


Tribal Affiliation: Navajo


 Origin of Recipe: Offered by Brenda Draper


  • 4 cups white long grain rice
  • 4 strips of uncooked bacon, sliced in 1/4" strips
  • 1 green bell pepper, diced
  • 1 small yellow onion, diced
  • 1 8 oz. can tomato sauce
  • 7 cups cold water
  • salt and pepper to taste



1. Sauté the bacon over medium heat in a large skillet;

adding the bell peppers and onions when the bacon is

almost cooked.

2. Sauté, add the rice, stir frequently to prevent from

over browning.

3. When rice is slightly browned, add the tomato sauce and water.

4. Let come to a boil, cover and simmer on low for 30 -35 minutes

(The time varies according to region and elevation.)

Note: You can add a can of stewed tomatoes, diced green chili,

jalapenos, or substitute the bacon with ground beef, using about

a pound. Just remember to drain the fat before you add the rice

and continue with the cooking.

Are African Americans the “Blackfoot” Indians?

Are African Americans the “Blackfoot” Indians?

Not necessarily. The “Blackfoot” Indians are one of the seven branches or “sub-tribes” of the Lakota. … Are African Americans the “Blackfoot” Indians? »»

The “Chickahominy” Indian Tribe

The Chickahominy Indian Tribe was among those which witnessed the coming of the colonists in 1607. At that time the Chickahominy lived in villages along the Chickahominy River from the James River to the middle of the current county of New Kent. The tribe, governed by a council of elders, was considered an ally of Powhatan and his paramount chiefdom. The Treaty of 1614 between the Chickahominy and the colonists provided that the Chickahominy would supply 300-400 bowmen to fight the Spanish if necessary.

When the Indians were sent by the English colonists to "Pamunkey Neck" in what is now King William County, the Chickahominy joined the other tribes. After 1718, the Indians were forced off that land, and over the next century, the tribal families migrated back to their ancestral land in Charles City and New Kent counties. In 1900, the tribal government was reorganized, and is now led by a chief, two assistant chiefs, and a tribal council of both men and women.

Today this tribe has approximately 750 Chickahominy people living within a five-mile radius of the tribal center in Charles City County, and several hundred more living in other parts of the United States. Its 25,000-acre enclave includes a tract on state Route 602 that holds the Samaria Baptist Church, the former Samaria Indian school that has been remodeled and is now part of the Church, and a tribal center for meetings and recreation. The tribe hosts an annual fall festival in late September, as well as several other public events. Politically active, the tribe has placed members on the county school board, the planning commission, and in local government offices. The tribe was recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1983.

The “Crow” Native Americans

Crow (people), Native American tribe of the Siouan language family. They originally lived in permanent agricultural villages along the upper Missouri River together with the Hidatsa. In the 18th century the Crow moved westward to the Yellowstone River area of the Rockies. There they adopted the buffalo-dependent Great Plains culture, becoming mounted hunters. The Crow, call themselves Absoraka ("bird people"). They became famous as warriors and also as scouts for the U.S. Army against their enemies. In 1868 the Crow moved to a reservation in Montana comprising a portion of their former territory; many still live there today. In 1990, 8,588 people in the United States claimed Crow ancestry.

The present-day Crow Indian Reservation stretches about 70 miles east to west and about 50 miles north to south, its southern extremity along the Montana-Wyoming border. The smaller Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation sits to the east and abuts the Crow lands.

Africans with Native Americans

It is known that many Africans intermarried with Native Americans. Less widely known is the fact that many Native Americans also owned African slaves, and fathered children with African slave women.  In addition there were smaller numbers  Free People of Color who lived in many of the nations and who also lived and married persons from the same nations, and whose descendants claim ancestry from the Oklahoma Black Indian people.  As a result, thousands of Americans have African and Indian ancestry." The Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole) owned slaves.

The “Blackfoot” Confederacy

The word "tribe" connotates a lack of cohesive political, cultural and social structure which definitely does not apply to the Niitsitapi. In fact, the cohesive structure was the very reason that the Niitsitapi achieved cultural, political and military predominance making them "the Lords of the Great Plains." They were a Nation of people united by a common language, culture and religion living in a country with borders recognized by other First Nations. When the Canadian federal government entered into negotiations with Crowfoot, the Siksika political leader, he had to consult the other Niitsitapi leaders as he was being asked by the government to negotiate matters affecting all Niistitapi. As leader of the Siksika and not the entire Niitsitapi, he couldn't do so without the consent of the other leaders.

In 1870, one of the worse slaughters of Indians by American troops occured, known as the Marias Massacre. On the morning of Jan. 23, 200 Peigans were killed, most of them women, children, and elderly. The Peigans were a friendly tribe, not the hostile camp that the troops were supposed to attack. However, the commander had permission to use his judgment and attack the Peigans and punish them for things they may be guilty of in the past or future. After the massacre, the troops left to find their real target, but it was too late as the hostile tribe had moved.

In daily life the Blackfoot were a nomadic people who followed the buffalo. It's difficult to lead a nomadic lifestyle when there is no place to go. The Niitsitapi were hemmed in by other First Nations. In addition, the different Niitsitapi had claim to areas within Niitsitapiskaku, for instance, the Siksika couldn't infringe on Ahkainah territories as the Ahkainah lived there. Their territory once covered an areas from Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta to the Yellowstone River, and from the Rocky Mountains to the present day North Dakota border.

The Arapaho

The Arapaho, who call themselves 'Inuna-ina', are close allies with the Cheyenne. This name is roughly translated into 'our people'. The Araphoe are considered to be buffalo hunters of the plains but also have traditions of a time when they lived in the east and planted corn. The Arapaho live in two divisions. The larger body lives with the Cheyenne in Oklahoma, while the northern division resides with the Shoshoni on a reservation in Wyoming. The Grosventres of Montana, formerly associated with the Blackfeet and numbering now about 700, are a detached band of Arapaho.

The Arapho tribe shares many of the same characteristics as the Kiowa in that they fought and hunted on horseback, lived in skin tipis, practiced little or no agriculture, used the same weapons, and have similar military organizations and tribal ceremonies. They wore the prairie moccasin, breech-cloth, and buckskin dress. The men wore the scalp-lock, usually having the rest of the hair braided and hanging down in front on each side of the head. They are considered to be quite tall with a build that is sinewy and they have thin, clear-cut features.

Recipe of the Week: Eggs & Wild Onions

 Eggs & Wild Onions  –Cherokee



  • Water
  • 6 eggs
  • Bacon grease or butter for frying.
  • About 2 dozen young, tender wild onions



Coarsely chop the onions.
Steam them for a few minutes with a little water. 
(Cover them and cook until they are limp)
Add eggs and stir to scramble them.
Add butter or grease, salt and pepper to taste.
Fry like scrambled eggs until they are as done as you like.
Best if not overcooked, though.
Serve hot

Tribal Affiliation : Cherokee

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by LeeAnn Dreadfulwater

Type of Dish : Contemporary & Tradional



AIBI (American Indian Bible Institute) provides resources for Biblical Church Development. It is a Ministry of American Indian Bible Institute. AIBI is a Bible training organization whose focus is the development of Godly leaders who are equipped to train others to: REACH – TEACH – TRAIN – SEND. For more information see:


The Micmac speak an Algonquian language most closely related to CREE, but their closest political and social relations are with the ABNAKI. As expert canoeists and sea navigators, they base their economy on the resources of the sea and its inlets, supplemented by hunting and collecting of plant foods. The Micmac became the first Indians to serve as middlemen in the European fur trade with interior tribes of North America. Missionized by the French in the early 1600s, they remained steadfastly loyal to France for a full generation after the British conquest of 1760. Contemporary Micmac communities are located in much the same territory they occupied five centuries ago. In the late 1980s their population was more than 15,000.

“Amazing Grace” song by Micmac Tribe

"Amazing Grace" song – Micmac Version:

Wleyuti tán tel-wltáq
Néwt keskaiap, Niké wéjíimk
Nekapikwaiap niké welapi
Wleyuti kisi-kinámatk nkamlamun
Aq pa kisiknewálik
Ankmayiw ikáq wleyuti
Teli-nqasék ketlamsîtm
Tán tetuji-wltáq Sésus wtuisunm
Wjit ketlamsvtmútitéwk
Wnmajótíl, jileiwaqnn aq kwetaiwekl

Wleyuti tán tel-wltáq
Kisi-wsîtawíik, Néwt keskaiap
Niké wéjíimk
Nekapikwaiap niké welapi


"Amazing Grace" song – English Version

Amazing grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me.
I once was lost, but now am found,
Was blind, but now I see.
'Twas grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears relieved.
How precious did that grace appear
The hour I first believed.
How sweet the name of Jesus sounds
In a believer's ear
It soothes his sorrows, heals his wounds
And drives away his fear.
Amazing grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me.
I once was lost, but now am found,
Was blind, but now I see.


The Micmacs of eastern Canada and the northeastern corner of the United States

(who prefer the phonetic spelling Mi'kmaq) first appeared in their homeland approximately

ten thousand years ago.



Edmonia Lewis

Edmonia Lewis was born on July 14, 1843. Lewis is believed to be the first woman sculptor of African-American and Native American heritage. Little is known about Lewis's early life. Sources give differing birth dates, 1843 and 1845; and birthplaces, Ohio, New York, and New Jersey. Her father was African and her mother was a member of the Ojibwa Native American community. In 1859, Lewis entered Oberlin College in Ohio, where she excelled at drawing. Known as Wildfire in the Ojibwa community, Lewis changed her name to Mary Edmonia during her time at Oberlin; she generally signed her sculptures and her correspondence with the name Edmonia.

The Wampanoag

The Wampanoag (Massachusett, Natick, Massassoit, Nantucket, Mashpee)

The Wampanoags are most famous for greeting and befriending the Pilgrims in 1620, bringing them corn and turkey to help them through the difficult winter and starting a Thanksgiving tradition that is still observed today. Unfortunately, the relationship soon soured. As more British colonists arrived in Massachusetts, they began displacing the Wampanoags from their traditional lands, particularly by plying Wampanoag men with alcohol and obtaining their signatures on land sale documents while they were drunk.

The Wampanoag leader Metacomet, known as "King Philip" to the English, tried to get this practice outlawed, and when the British refused, a war ensued. The British who won decisively, sold many of the Wampanoag survivors into slavery, drove the rest into hiding, and forbade the use of the Massachusett language and Wampanoag tribal names. Only in 1928 were the Wampanoag people able to reclaim their tribal identity. The Wampanoag tribe suffered an unhappy fate at the hands of the English. The 2000 or so surviving Wampanoag descendants still live in Plymouth county -Masschusetts.

The Wampanoag language–also known as Massachusett, Pokanoket or Natick–is an unfortunately extinct Algonkian language. Some Indians of New England are trying to revive it. Narragansett is considered by some linguists to have been a Wampanoag dialect, by others a distinct language.

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Recipe of the Week: Fruit Salad

Clean and washed elder berries.

Clean and wash black berries.

We use to have garden fresh strawberries the really big ones she only used about seven or so. Slice thick

2 medium size green apples young ones are really tart sliced.(remember) to many will hurt your belly. Fresh cherries washed

Pitted… Roll all the fruit in ice till ice is melted. Then drain and roll in powdered sugar till all coated. Let dry on a cookie sheet till the fried bread is done and cool.

Put a small slit in the fried bread and scoop up some fruit sweet and cool treat for the kids grandmal made it all summer …

Note: you can keep the fruit in fridg for night snack too….



Orgin of Recipe : Offered by John Leasure … who's Grandmal made this in the summer for us kids.


Type of Dish : Contemporary & Tradional

The Incas

For purposes of administration the empire was divided into four parts, the lines of which met at Cuzco; the quarters were divided into provinces, usually on the basis of former independent divisions. These in turn were customarily split into an upper and a lower moiety; the moieties were subdivided into ayllus, or local communities. Much as it exists today as the basic unit of communal indigenous society, so the ancient ayllu was the political and social foundation of Inca government. When a territory was conquered, surveys, consisting of relief models of topographical and population features, and a census of the population were made. With these reports, recorded on quipus, of the material and human resources in each province, populations were reshuffled as needed. Thus transplanted, and dominated by Quechua colonists, the subject peoples had less chance to revolt, and the separate languages and cultures were molded to the Inca pattern.

For more information see:


The Mayans

Mayan contributions were many. They developed an advanced writing system. Their history, entrusted to cactus fiber parchment, fared poorly against the ravages of time and Spanish censors saw to the destruction of much of the remainder. However, many of their carvings on stone have survived and provide much of what is known today about their civilization. The Mayans also were gifted mathematicians who independently developed the concept of zero, and astronomers who deduced that a solar year was slightly more than 365 days. Despite these achievements, the Mayans and other Meso-American cultures failed to discover the utility of the wheel.

The decline of Mayan civilization was well under way by 1100 B.C. The causes are uncertain, but speculation points to warfare, crop failures and disease as leading possibilities. By the time of the Spanish arrival around 1520, the Mayans were a starkly diminished civilization; their great cities were abandoned and the remnants of their population widely scattered.

For More Information see:

The Aztecs/Mexicas

Fearless warriors and pragmatic builders, the Aztecs created an empire during the 15th century that was surpassed in size in the Americas only by that of the Incas in Peru. As early texts and modern archaeology continue to reveal, beyond their conquests and many of their religious practices, there were many positive achievements:



  • formation of a highly specialized and stratified society and an imperial administration
  • expansion of a trading network as well as a tribute system
  • development/maintenance of a sophisticated agricultural economy, adjusted to the land 



The yearly round of rites and ceremonies in the cities of Tenochtitlan and neighboring Tetzcoco, and their symbolic art and architecture, gave expression to an ancient awareness of the interdependence of nature and humanity.


The Aztecs remain the most extensively documented of all Amerindian civilizations at the time of European contact in the 16th century. Spanish friars, soldiers, and historians and scholars of Indian or mixed descent left invaluable records of all aspects of life. These ethnohistoric sources, linked to modern archaeological inquiries and studies of ethnologists, linguists, historians, and art historians, portray the formation and flourishing of a complex imperial state.


For more information see:

Blood Quantum and Native Citizenship

The Bureau of Indian Affairs has used a "blood quantum" definition of generally, one-fourth degree of American Indian "blood" and/or tribal membership to recognize a person as an American Indian. However, each tribe has a particular set of requirements, typically including a blood quantum, for membership (enrollment) in the tribe. Requirements vary widely from tribe to tribe: a few tribes require at least a one-half Indian (or tribal) blood quantum; many others require a one-fourth blood quantum; still others, generally in California and Oklahoma, require a one-eighth, one-sixteenth, or one-thirty-second blood quantum; and some tribes have no minimum blood quantum requirement at all but require an explicitly documented tribal lineage.



To learn about Tribal Nation Citzenship and Blood Quantum requirements see the following website:



Western Region:


Chickasaw Nation Citizenship 


Muscogee (Creek) Nation Citizenship                              

Choctaw Nation Citizenship      


Cherokee Nation Citizenship

Seminole Nation Citizenship                          




Black – Indian History

Throughout American history, the longest and most consistent contact between American Indians and peoples of African descent occurred among those tribes that the federal government designated as the Five Civilized Tribes–the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles. … Black – Indian History »»

Native States

The 1990 U.S. Census reported the largest number of Native Americans in the states of Oklahoma, California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The census also indicated that slightly over half of Native Americans live in urban areas; cities with the largest Native American populations are New York, Oklahoma City, Phoenix, Tulsa, Los Angeles, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Anchorage, and Albuquerque. Around one-fourth of American Indians in the United States live on 278 reservations (or pueblos or rancherias) or associated "tribal trust lands," according to the census.

Choctaw History

The Choctaws, or Chatas, are a Native American people originally from the southeast United States (Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana) of the Muskoghean linguistic group. In the nineteenth century, they were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes," so-called because they had integrated a number of cultural and technological "practices" of Europeans. The Choctaws are famous for their extreme generosity in providing famine relief during the Irish Potato Famine.

Choctaw Ancestry

 Nine more treaties were agreed upon, the final being the infamous Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty signed September 15, 1830. There were additional treaties made with the Choctaws who had removed to Indian Territory. Those who remained became the target of unscrupulous land speculators as the Federal Government made repeated efforts to remove them.

The Choctaw Indian tribe had existed in the Southeastern United States for several centuries before the Dutch engineer and adventurer Bernard Romans visited the area in 1771 that would later become Newton County. He was not the first white man to come in contact with the Choctaw Indian tribe or the first to write about them, but he was the first person to attempt to both describe their customs in great detail and to map the villages in which they lived. During a process of approximately two years he traveled throughout the Choctaw Nation to meet the Chahta people and write about his experiences.

The first documented visit of a white man to Newton County, Mississippi, was that of Regis du Roullet, an officer of the French colonial government, who from October 13 through October 15, 1729, stayed at the village of the Yellow Cane People, Oskilahna, now in southeastern Newton County and near the Jasper County line. He would later visit other villages in the county. Roullet was authorized by the French provisional government to strengthen trading relations between the French and Choctaws while dissuading the Choctaws from trading with the English. Based on notes from his journal we know that traders, both from France and England, had preceded him into Choctaw territory.

At their height of power the Choctaw Indian tribe occupied and controlled most of what would later become the southern two-thirds of Mississippi, much of the Mississippi Delta, and part of western Alabama. Although there were regional differences in physical appearance and language, the Choctaws were bound together by a common government, social practices, and history.

Our greatest understanding of their culture comes from the writings of Henry Sales Halbert (1827-1916), a Catholic missionary and teacher to the Choctaws from 1888-ca 1900. Living at Tucker in Neshoba County and at Conehatta in Newton County, H. S. Halbert provides a detailed description of the culture and history of the Choctaws through his prolific writings. In the early 1900’s his research efforts were joined by those of John Reed Swanton (1873-1958).

The Choctaw culture was strictly matriarchal and any discussion of Choctaw ancestry begins with the knowledge that the greater prestige in ancestry begins with an understanding of the family tree of your mother, your grandmother, ad infinitum. Most Choctaws lived in villages since this arrangement provided mutual protection as well as other advantages. The Choctaw mother spent most of her time at the village, giving birth and rearing the children. The farm plot of maize, beans and other crops were also her responsibility and those of her younger children.

The primary roles of the Choctaw adult male were those of hunter and protector; therefore, the male often spent more time in the forests and fields than at the village where his family lived. He followed game on a seasonal basis, meaning he had to frequently relocate his camp. While it may seem difficult for the modern reader to comprehend, and given the fact that Indians traveled primarily by foot, Choctaw braves ventured as far north as Georgia, Kentucky and Missouri in search for material from which to make their spears and arrowheads and as far west as the modern states of New Mexico and Arizona in search of bison and other game. 

Picture of Pushmataha the most famous Choctaw leader.


Excerpt from: 

Picture from Wikipedia

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act

The act defines three classes of gambling and gaming: Class I: Social games solely for prizes of minimal value or traditional forms of Indian gaming engaged in by individuals as a part of, or in connection with, tribal ceremonies or celebrations. … The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act »»

Recipe of the Week: Fried Corn

Fried CornComanche


  • 1 large onion(white or yellow)
  • Bacon,(half a pound)
  • Corn(about 8 ears)
  • Salt and black pepper to taste



First you shuck the corn and wash, then cut it with a real sharp knife, you want to skim the top of the kernels off.

Then scrape the cob to get all the juice out of it.

Then you fry the bacon real good, leave the grease in the pot (black pot works best).

Cut and sauté the onion in the grease till it is clear.

Add the corn and the salt and pepper.

Simmer over a low heat and stir often so it doesn't stick.

Note: You can leave some of the bacon in, but we always use it to make a sandwich with while we cook the corn.


Tribal Affiliation : Comanche Nation


Origin of Recipe: Offered by Linda Ransome

            (who learned this from her great grandmother, who was Comanche.)


 Type of Dish : Today's Native Dishes 



Native Americans in the US

Native Americans in the United States (also known as Indians, American Indians, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Indigenous, Aboriginal or Original peoples or Americans) are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times.

Aleut and Inuit

Although Arctic peoples shared many ways of life, there were significant variations across the four main groups. In cultural terms, the Central Inuit practiced ways of life often considered typical for Arctic peoples. They lived in snow houses called igloos, traveled in lightweight skin boats called kayaks, and used sleds and dog teams. However, one Central Inuit group, the Caribou Inuit, were an inland people who hunted the animals for which they are named and fished freshwater lakes. Their way of life was similar to that of peoples of the Subarctic culture area. The Copper Inuit, another Central Inuit group, were unusual in that they used copper surface nuggets found in their territory to craft tools. The Inuit of southern Alaska had regular trade contacts with Athapaskan Subarctic peoples, among other Indians, and adopted some of their customs. The Aleut, because of their location on the Pacific Coast and frequent contact with coastal peoples to the south, exhibited some cultural traits similar to those found in the Northwest Coast culture area.Excerpts from Wikipedia and MSN Encarta


Aleut and Inuit

Although Arctic peoples shared many ways of life, there were significant variations across the four main groups. In cultural terms, the Central Inuit practiced ways of life often considered typical for Arctic peoples. They lived in snow houses called igloos, traveled in lightweight skin boats called kayaks, and used sleds and dog teams. However, one Central Inuit group, the Caribou Inuit, were an inland people who hunted the animals for which they are named and fished freshwater lakes. Their way of life was similar to that of peoples of the Subarctic culture area. The Copper Inuit, another Central Inuit group, were unusual in that they used copper surface nuggets found in their territory to craft tools. The Inuit of southern Alaska had regular trade contacts with Athapaskan Subarctic peoples, among other Indians, and adopted some of their customs. The Aleut, because of their location on the Pacific Coast and frequent contact with coastal peoples to the south, exhibited some cultural traits similar to those found in the Northwest Coast culture area.Excerpts from Wikipedia and MSN Encarta


American Indian Names for Babies

Native American Baby Names

[Girl Native American Baby Names] [Boy Native American Baby Names]

Browse our listing of over 99 Native American baby names! For detailed meanings, famous namesakes, alternatives, and more, please click on one of the Native American baby names below.

  Displaying names 1 to 99 out of 99  
Abey female Native American  leaf 
Aiyana female Native American  eternal bllom 
Akando male Native American  ambush 
Alaqua Female Native American  A sweet Gum tree. 
Aleshanee female Native American  She plays all the time 
Amitola female Native American  rainbow 
Angeni female Native American  spirit angel 
Anoke Male Native American  The actor. 
Anoki male Native American  an actor 
Aponi female Native American  butterfly 
Aquene female Native American  peace 
Ayita female Native American  worker 
Benquasha female Native American  daughter of Ben 
Bly female Native American  high, tall 
Chenoa Female Native American  A white dove. 
Cherokee Male Native American  The name of a tribe. 
Cheyenne Male Native American  A tribe. Also a city in the USA. 
Chilali female Native American  snowbird 
Chimalis female Native American  bluebird 
Dakota Male Native American  A friend. 
Delsin male Native American  he is so 
Dyami Male Native American  An eagle. 
Dyani Female Native American  A deer. 
Elan Male Hebrew/ Native American  Hebrew: A tree. North American Indian: The friendly one. 
Elu male Native American  full of grace 
Enola female Native American  magnolia 
Etania female Native American  wealthy 
Eyota Female Native American  The greatest. 
Fala female Native American  crow 
Halona Female Native American  Fortunate. 
Helaku male Native American  sunny day 
Huyana female Native American  rain fallingHindu 
Istas female Native American  snow 
Jacy male Native American  the moon 
Kachine female Native American  sacred dancer 
Kaniya female Native American  Niya 
Kiona female Native American  brown hills 
Koko Female Japanese/ Native American  Japanese: A stork. North American Indian: Of the night. 
Kuruk Male Native American  A bear. 
Lakota male Native American  friend 
Lakota female Native American  friend 
Laquetta female Native American  Quetta, Etta 
Magena Female Native American  The coming moon. 
Mahala female Native American, Hebrew, Arabic  woman; tenderness; marrow 
Makya Male Native American  The eagle hunter. 
Meda female Native American  priestess 
Miakoda female Native American  power of the moon 
Minda female Native American  knowledge 
Mitena female Native American  coming moon, new moon 
Mitexi female Native American  sacred moon 
Motega male Native American  new arrow 
Namid Male Native American  A dancer. 
Natane Female Native American  Female child. 
Neka Female Native American  A wild goose. 
Nita Female Native American  A bean grower. Feminine form of Fabian. 
Nitika female Native American  angel of precious stone 
Nodin male Native American  wind 
Olathe Female Native American  Beautiful. 
Onawa Female Native American  One who is wide-awake. 
Onida Female Native American  The expected or awaited one. 
Paco Male Native American  Gold eagle. Also a Spanish nickname of Francis. 
Patamon male Native American  raging 
Pilan male Native American  supreme essence 
Sahale male Native American  above 
Sakari female Native American  sweet 
Sakima Male Native American  A king. 
Satinka female Native American  magic dancer 
Shako female Native American  mint 
Shaman male Native American  holy man 
Shawnnessy female Irish, Native American  Saughnessy, O'Shaughnessy, Seannesy 
Shysie female Native American  silent little one 
Taborri female Native American  voices that carry 
Tacincala female Native American  deer 
Taima female Native American  crash of thunder 
Tainn female Native American  new moon 
Takoda Male Native American  The friend of all. 
Tala female Native American  stalking wolf 
Tallulah Female Native American  Running water. 
Tamsyn female Native American  Tami 
Tarsha female Native American   
Tayen female Native American  new moon 
Tehya female Native American  precious 
Tyee male Native American  chief 
Utina Female Native American  A woman of my country. 
Waneta female Native American  charger 
Wapeka female Native American  skillful 
Wenona Female Native American  The firstborn daughter. 
Wenonah Female Native American  The firstborn daughter. 
Winema Female Native American  A female chief. 
Winona Female Native American  The firstborn daughter. 
Wyanet Female Native American  Beautiful. 
Wynona Female Native American  The firstborn daughter. 
Wyome male Native American  plain 
Yahto male Native American  blue 
Yancy Male Native American  The Englishman. The word later became `Yankee'. 
Yona Male Hebrew/Native American  Hebrew: A dove. Native American: A bear. A boy or girl's name. 
Yona Female Hebrew/Native American  Hebrew: A dove. Native American: A bear. A boy or girl's name. 
Yuma Male Native American  The son of a chief. 
Zaltana female Native American  high mountain 


For more information see:

Bald Eagle and the Flag

An eagle feather is a lot like the American flag. It must be handled with care and can never be dropped on the ground. Feathers mean a lot to Native American Tribes.  A feather isn’t just something that falls out of a bird, it means much more.  The feather symbolizes trust, honor, strength, wisdom, power, freedom and many more things. To be given one of these is to be hand picked out of the rest of the men in the tribe – it’s like getting a gift from a high official.

If any Indian is given Golden or Bald Eagle feathers it is one of the most rewarding items they can ever be handed. The Indians believe that eagles have a special connection with the heavens since they fly so close. Many Indians believe that if they are given this feather, it is a symbol from above. They believe that the eagle is the leader of all birds, because it flies as high as it does and sees better than all the birds. 

Once an Indian receives a feather he must take care of it, and many will hang it up in their homes. It is disrespectful to hide it away in a drawer or a closet. An Indian will be given a feather to hold on to or to wear, and if they hold it they must put it out for everyone to see. This will be a constant reminder of how to behave.

The only way an Indian can actually get one of these feathers is by doing a brave deed, like fighting off a bear or going up against the enemy. They were never allowed to wear the feather until they went in front of their tribal court and retold the story of their victory. It was at this time that they were allowed to put it in their headpiece. Only chieftains, warriors, and braves have ever been awarded this special gift.  The next time you see eagle feathers in a headdress, think about how they were earned.



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The Declaration of Independence -1776

The Declaration of Independence (1776) contains Jefferson's noble statement of the rights of mankind thus became a beacon for future generations, not only in the United States but throughout the world. One need not ignore the fact that Jefferson had to temporize, for American society in the eighteenth century did not treat all people equally. Native Americans, people without property, women and especially black slaves were considered neither equal nor endowed with rights. But the statement became the goal, the ideal, and it would be the standard against which future American society would be — and still is — judged.

The Ohlone:

Native American people have lived in California for thousands of years. The Ohlone people established their homes along the central California coast long before any European colonists arrived. Anthropologists who studied the language groups of California Indians named the people of the central California coast, Costanoan. The word, Costanoan, comes from the Spanish word costeños, which means "people of the coast." Today these people wish to be known as Ohlone.

MOWA Choctaw

The first treaty made under the provisions of the 1830 Indian Removal Act was the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek with the Choctaw that same year. Mass confusion reigned among the Choctaw of southwestern Alabama and Mississippi as they were forced to leave their homes and lands. Cold, cholera, hunger and despair were their constant companions on the trail to Oklahoma. Some Choctaw were able to escape of avoid removal and they formed the nucleus of the tribe today. They adopted the name "MOWA Choctaw Indians" to identify the Indians in Mobile and Washington Counties who are descended from several Indian tribes including Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, Mescalero and Apache.

Taking the Journey…

When seeking your Native roots, there is an old saying amongst the Natives. It is “Each one must take his or her own journey”. This is a very wise saying. It testifies to the fact that each person who is searching for his or her Native American roots is on a personal journey. No one can take the trip for you. They can assist you, but not take the journey for you.  

The three questions you must ask yourself are:  

  • Why am I interested in searching for my Native American roots?
  • Why am I searching NOW? What in my life has brought me to this point?
  • What do I hope to gain or loose in this search?

Many people answer the first question by responding they have heard their family tree consisted of “Indians” and they want to find out if it is true. 

Many people answer the second question by responding, ‘I just feel a calling or yearning to know the truth’ or they reply, ‘it is important to me to fill my family history gaps’. 

Many people answer the third question by responding, ‘You know Native Americans are opening up those casinos, maybe I can be a part of that’, or ‘I have nothing to gain or loose. I am just curious’. 

Well, whatever the reason, know that misguided or selfish motives will extend your personal journey to learn about your Native American roots. Selfishness will always guide you in the wrong direction.

To begin your journey purchase the "Black Red Roots" how-to-manual.

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Recipe of the Week : Redman’s Cornbread

Recipe of the Week:



Redman's Cornbread  



  • 2 cups water ground cornmeal
  • 1 can whole stewed tomatoes
  • 1 chopped onion
  • Salt and Pepper to taste
  • pot of hot oil (preferably after frying fish)



In a large bowl add cornmeal, salt and pepper. Dump in the juice from the canned tomatoes, and squish the tomatoes through your fingers into the bowl. Add chopped onions. Mix all together. Drop by the teaspoon full into the hot oil and fry until golden brown.


Recipe Contributor:

Contributor : clptoes

Tribal Affiliation : Creek from Georgia

Orgin of Recipe : My grandma, great aunts and great grandmother. This is traditional in our family at fish fries.


Type of Dish : Contemporary & Traditional 

For additional information see:   


Cherokee Language

When reading a Cherokee word written phonetically, remember these pronunciations:

A ( as in ‘father’)
E (an ‘a’ sound, as in ‘way’)
I (an ‘e’ sound, as in ‘bee’)
O (as in ‘oh’)
U (as in ‘ooh’)
V (sounds like ‘uh’)
Ts makes a ‘j’ sound

Beginning Cherokee Words Greetings and courtesies:

Hello-O si yo
How are you?-To hi tsu?
Fine-O s da
And you?-Ni hi na
Okay-Ho wa
Thank you-Wa do
Yes- vv ii
I don’t know-Thla ya gwan ta

Info provided by the Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center

What is the BIA?

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) responsibility is the administration and management of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. There are 561 federal recognized tribal governments in the United States. Developing forestlands, leasing assets on these lands, directing agricultural programs, protecting water and land rights, developing and maintaining infrastructure and economic development are all part of the agency's responsibility. In addition, the Bureau of Indian Affairs provides education services to approximately 48,000 Indian students.

Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) responsibility is the administration and management of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. There are 566 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. … Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) »»

Seminole Indians Today

Want to learn about the 'Seminoles Tribe of Florida' in today’s news? Read “The Seminole Tribune: Voice of the Unconquered”. See website: 

Photo of today’s Seminoles in the news


Seminole Chief Billy Bowlegs

"Billy Bowlegs" was O-lac-to-mi-co or "Holato Mico" (circa 1810-circa 1864), a Seminole chief who was part of a ruling Seminole family. Bowlegs met up with Andrew Jackson during the Indian uprisings of the early 1800's. In the 1850's, when the few remaining Florida Seminoles were living peacefully on their own lands in south Florida, 'the old Chieftain' was provoked into war by Colonel Harney's surveying corps. One night Harney's men slipped into Bowleg's thriving banana plantation and hacked the plants to bits. When confronted by the outraged chieftain, the surveyors brazenly admitted to ruining the plantation because they wanted "to see old Billy cut up". The incident led to the Third Seminole War (1855-1858), bringing federal troops and bloodhounds into South Florida. Chief Bowlegs and his war-weary band surrendered on May 7, 1858. Thirty-eight warriors and eighty-five women and children, including Billy's wife, boarded the steamer, Grey Cloud, at Egmont Key to begin their journey to Oklahoma. Bowlegs died soon after his arrival, on April 27, 1859. 

Photograph of Seminole Chief, Billy Bowlegs


Excerpts taken from Biography prepared by Gail Clement, Florida International University.

Native American Music Awards (NAMA)

Native American Music Awards (NAMA) are held each year to award the accomplishments of Native American musicians, vocalists, and performers. The music recognized includes Gospel, Blues, Jazz, R&B, Rap, Hip-Hop, Pow-Wow and others. Also learn what are the ‘Recording of Year’, ‘Best Producer’, ‘Best Songwriter’, and many other awards.  See and listen to the latest Native American Music performers and listen to their music samples at:

The Chickamauga

The two main Chickamauga Chiefs, Dragging Canoe (Tsiyugunsini) son of Attakullakulla and John Watts (Kunokeski) were relatives of Cherokee Nation Principle Chief Moytoy (Amahetai) and may have been advised to leave the Nation so as not to draw the Cherokee Nation's residents farther into a full scale war with the Americans. From 1777, the Chickamauga were not an official part of the governance and policy structure of the Cherokee Nation and through their external military policy, the Chickamauga were an independent Cherokee political entity although not an entity with which the majority of the Cherokee Nation residents were opposed.

There currently exists a community of Cherokee Indians in north Alabama whose national history has been almost erased by the historian's and federal agency's (especially the BIA's) preoccupation with the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and Eastern Band of North Carolina. The Chickamauga Cherokee of Alabama, located principally in north Alabama are the descendants of the Chickamauga Indians, being those Cherokee who separated themselves politically from the Cherokee Nation in 1777 to establish new towns and a new political relationship with the United States. The Chickamauga Cherokee have survived as an Indian community during a period of time in which the State of Alabama dissolved the legal powers of all Cherokee village Chiefs, thus making Indian government in Alabama functionally illegal.

On the first new moon of spring in the year 2000 at the Kinlock Indian Rock Shelter, the Chickamauga Cherokee of Alabama rekindled the "sacred fire" of this north Alabama community. This was, no doubt, the first time in many years that the Chickamauga Cherokee had observed the festival of "When the grass begins to grow". The Chickamauga Cherokee of Alabama are dedicated to renewing the culture and education of the Chickamauga people. 

Excerpt from :


Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center

Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center is the world's largest and most comprehensive Native American museum and research center offering an array of engaging experiences for young and old, from life-size walk-through dioramas that transport visitors into the past, to changing exhibits and live performances of contemporary arts and cultures. Four full acres of permanents exhibits depict 18,000 years of Native and natural history in thoroughly researched detail, while two libraries, including one for children, offer a diverse selection of materials on the histories and cultures of all Native peoples of the United States and Canada.

Summertime is Time for Adventures!

Join the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for a Summer of adventure and exploration as you examine the bones of ancient Mammoths and Mastodons, dance at a Powwow Festival, celebrate strawberries or earn your stripes as a Junior Scientist. You’ll become a part of history as you visit the world’s largest Native American museum and walk through an authentic Native American village from the 16th century – among other time-traveling adventures.  Then try your hand at digging for ancient artifacts or creating expressive artwork. Or take a sculpture tour and learn how to track woodland animals. If you’re looking for excitement this summer, you’ve come to the right place! There’s something to do everyday for the whole family. Just ask the Yankee Magazine Travel Guide, which named the Mashantucket Pequot Museum one of the “must see” places in New England.

Museum Address:
110 Pequot Trail
P.O. Box 3180
Mashantucket, CT 06339-3180

Paul Cuffe Sr

Paul Cuffe, Sr., one of the most important and least known of the anti-slavery leaders in the United States, was the son of a freed African slave and a Wampanoag Indian woman from Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. He rose from poverty to become one of the wealthiest men of color in the United States by the first decade of the nineteenth century, his fortune based on skill as a shipbuilder and merchant-captain. Through his biography we see his courage in expressing his passionate opposition to slavery that led to the organization of Sierra Leone on the west coast of Africa as a home for manumitted slaves.

Blood Mixing

The issue of the "mixing of blood" between Africans and Native Americans and the history of Africans on the American continent is one that needs deep study and reflection. By studying these connections and relationships it is easy to see that there are broad ranging implications. Not only between Native and African Americans with Native American descent but also in respect to the history of African Americans and the American continent. It is time for those who have knowledge of their background and history not to be ashamed of wanting to learn more about it or of struggling for their entitlements. Excerpt: Bakari Akil II, Global Black News (GBN)

National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)

Current Issues and activities of the NCAI include:

  • Protection of programs and services to benefit Indian families, specifically targeting Indian  Youth and elders


  • Promotion and support of Indian education, including Head Start, elementary, post-secondary and Adult Education


  • Enhancement of Indian health care, including prevention of juvenile substance abuse, HIV-AIDS prevention and other major diseases


  • Support of environmental protection and natural resources management


  • Protection of Indian cultural resources and religious freedom rights


  • Promotion of the Rights of Indian economic opportunity both on and off reservations, including securing programs to provide incentives for economic development and the attraction of private capital to Indian Country


  • Protection of the Rights of all Indian people to decent, safe and affordable housing


 National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
1301 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 200, Washington D.C. 20036
Phone: (202) 466-7767, Fax: (202) 466-7797

National Native News (NNN)

National Native News (NNN) is a weekday, five-minute radio newscast. It's one of Koahnic Broadcast Corporation's four nationally syndicated radio programs. NNN is produced in Albuquerque, NM. It is a headline radio news service dedicated to Native American issues and events that compiles spot news reports from around the country. NNN is the first Native-produced, daily Native radio newscast that is distributed nationally.

Beatified Mohawk-Algonquin

On June 22nd in 1980, the Vatican beatified Kateri Tekakwitha. The Mohawk-Algonquin woman was born in New York. She’s the first Native American to be declared blessed by the Roman Catholic Church, which is one step away from becoming a Saint

Native Cooking – Corn

Dent corn, sweet corn, flint and popcorn are the four major types of commercial corn grown in this country today. We grew our own flint corn and dried some, ground some and ate some. It was a good, secure feeling to know we could survive anything with the stores we had. That must have been comforting to our ancestors as well.

Posted: June 14, 2006
by: Dale Carson / Indian Country Today


Sitting Bull

As a young man, Sitting Bull became a leader of the Strong Heart warrior society and, later, a distinguished member of the Silent Eaters, a group concerned with tribal welfare. He first went to battle at age 14, in a raid on the Crow, and saw his first encounter with American soldiers in June 1863, when the army mounted a broad campaign in retaliation for the Santee Rebellion in Minnesota, in which Sitting Bull's people played no part. The next year Sitting Bull fought U.S. troops again, at the Battle of Killdeer Mountain, and in 1865 he led a siege against the newly established Fort Rice in present-day North Dakota. Widely respected for his bravery and insight, he became head chief of the Lakota nation about 1868. Sitting Bull's courage was legendary.

Sitting Bull was buried at Fort Yates in North Dakota, and in 1953 his remains were moved to Mobridge, South Dakota, where a granite shaft marks his grave. He was remembered among the Lakota not only as an inspirational leader and fearless warrior but as a loving father, a gifted singer, a man always affable and friendly toward others, whose deep religious faith gave him prophetic insight and lent special power to his prayers.

Article excerpt from:



416 Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Want to learn about Famous Native American Indian Chiefs, Leaders, and Warriors? There is information about 416 Chiefs and Leaders listed at:

Red Cloud

Although the details of his early life are unclear, Red Cloud was born near the forks of the Platte River, near what is now North Platte, Nebraska. His mother was an Oglala and his father, who died in Red Cloud's youth, was a Brul. Red Cloud was raised in the household of his maternal uncle, Chief Smoke.

Much of Red Cloud's early life was spent at war, first and most often against the neighboring Pawnee and Crow, at times against other Oglala. In 1841 he killed one of his uncle's primary rivals, an event which divided the Oglala for the next fifty years. He gained enormous prominence within the Lakota nation for his leadership in territorial wars against the Pawnees, Crows, Utes and Shoshones.

Photograph of Red Cloud


Beginning in 1866, Red Cloud orchestrated the most successful war against the United States ever fought by an Indian nation. Red Cloud's strategies were so successful that by 1868 the United States government had agreed to the Fort Laramie Treaty. The treaty's remarkable provisions mandated that the United States abandon its forts along the Bozeman Trail and guarantee the Lakota their possession of what is now the Western half of South Dakota, including the Black Hills, along with much of Montana and Wyoming.

The peace, of course, did not last. Custer's 1874 Black Hills expedition again brought war to the northern Plains, a war that would mean the end of independent Indian nations. For reasons which are not entirely clear, Red Cloud did not join Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull and other war leaders in the Lakota War of 1876-77. However, after the military defeat of the Lakota nation, Red Cloud continued to fight for the needs and autonomy of his people, even if in less obvious or dramatic ways than waging war.

Throughout the 1880's Red Cloud struggled with Pine Ridge Indian Agent Valentine McGillycuddy over the distribution of government food and supplies and the control of the Indian police force. He was eventually successful in securing McGillycuddy's dismissal. Red Cloud cultivated contacts with sympathetic Eastern reformers, especially Thomas A. Bland, and was not above pretending for political effect to be more acculturated to white ways than he actually was.

Fearing the Army's presence on his reservation, Red Cloud refrained from endorsing the Ghost Dance movement, and unlike Sitting Bull and Big Foot, he escaped the Army's occupation unscathed. Thereafter he continued to fight to preserve the authority of chiefs such as himself, opposed leasing Lakota lands to whites, and vainly fought allotment of Indian reservations into individual tracts under the 1887 Dawes Act. He died in 1909, but his long and complex life endures as testimony to the variety of ways in which Indians resisted their conquest.

Article from:

Rachel Caroline Eaten

Rachel Caroline Eaten, an 1888 graduate of The Cherokee Female Seminary pursued a baccalaureate and then went on for a Ph.D. in History at the University of Chicago. The author of four books on Oklahoma, two on the Cherokees, Eaten taught at several colleges including Trinity University in San Antonio where she also chaired the history department.

Cherokee Female Seminary

The Cherokee Female Seminary, one of the first boarding schools for Native Americans, was not created by the federal government, but was founded in 1851 by the Cherokee National Council of Oklahoma. Students at the Cherokee Female Seminary took courses in Latin, French, trigonometry, political economy, and literary criticism, a curriculum that precluded any discussion of Cherokee culture or language. Pupils staged dramatic productions, held music recitals and published their own newsletter. But their graduation rate proved almost non-existent, and color and class hierarchies existed with lighter-peers referring to themselves as "progressive" Cherokees. Still this institution helped shape an acculturated Cherokee identity in which young graduates "became educators, businesswomen, physicians, stock raisers, and prominent social workers. Responding to tribal criticisms that the seminary students were ill prepared to take their places as farmers’ wives, the curriculum shifted by 1905 to include classes in "domestic science" with cooking and cleaning predominately featured. For fifty years, more than 3,000 young women had attended the Cherokee Female Seminary, and their lives there "helped to strengthen their identities as Cherokees although there were differences in opinion as to what a Cherokee really was," according to historian Devon Mihesuah. The old female seminary building still stands on the campus of Northeastern State University in Oklahoma

Native American Apology

Native American Apology is a proposed resolution which recognizes and honors the importance of Native Americans to this land and to our nation – in the past and today – and offers an official United States government apology to the Native peoples for the poor and painful past choices the government sometimes made to disregard its solemn word in regard to treaties with the Native American Indians. It is a resolution of apology and a resolution of reconciliation. It is a step toward healing the wounds that have divided the United States for so long – a potential foundation for a new era of positive relations between Tribal governments and the federal government.


To the Apaches, Geronimo embodied the very essence of the Apache values, aggressiveness, and courage in the face of difficulty. These qualities inspired fear in the settlers of Arizona and New Mexico. The Chiricahuas were mostly migratory following the seasons, hunting and farming. When food was scarce, it was the custom to raid neighboring tribes. Raids and vengeance were an honorable way of life among the tribes of this region.

By the time American settlers began arriving in the area, the Spanish had become entrenched in the area. They were always looking for Indian slaves and Christian converts. One of the most pivotal moments in Geronimo's life was in 1858 when he returned home from a trading excursion into Mexico. He found his wife, his mother and his three young children murdered by Spanish troops from Mexico. This reportedly caused him to have such a hatred of the whites that he vowed to kill as many as he could. From that day on he took every opportunity he could to terrorize Mexican settlements and soon after this incident he received his power, which came to him in visions. Geronimo was never a chief, but a medicine man, a seer and a spiritual and intellectual leader both in and out of battle. The Apache chiefs depended on his wisdom.

When the Chiricahua were forcibly removed (1876) to arid land at San Carlos, in eastern Arizona, Geronimo fled with a band of followers into Mexico. He was soon arrested and returned to the new reservation. For the remainder of the 1870s, he and Juh led a quiet life on the reservation, but with the slaying of an Apache prophet in 1881, they returned to full-time activities from a secret camp in the Sierra Madre Mountains.

In 1875 all Apaches west of the Rio Grande were ordered to the San Carlos Reservation. Geronimo escaped from the reservation three times and although he surrendered, he always managed to avoid capture. In 1876, the U.S. Army tried to move the Chiricahuas onto a reservation, but Geronimo fled to Mexico eluding the troops for over a decade. Sensationalized press reports exaggerated Geronimo's activities, making him the most feared and infamous Apache. The last few months of the campaign required over 5,000 soldiers, one-quarter of the entire Army, and 500 scouts, and perhaps up to 3,000 Mexican soldiers to track down Geronimo and his band.

In May 1882, Apache scouts working for the U.S. army surprised Geronimo in his mountain sanctuary, and he agreed to return with his people to the reservation. After a year of farming, the sudden arrest and imprisonment of the Apache warrior Ka-ya-ten-nae, together with rumors of impending trials and hangings, prompted Geronimo to flee on May 17, 1885, with 35 warriors and 109 women, children and youths. In January 1886, Apache scouts penetrated Juh's seemingly impregnable hideout. This action induced Geronimo to surrender (Mar. 25, 1886) to Gen. George CROOK. Geronimo later fled but finally surrendered to Gen. Nelson MILES on Sept. 4, 1886. The government breached its agreement and transported Geronimo and nearly 450 Apache men, women, and children to Florida for confinement in Forts Marion and Pickens. In 1894 they were removed to Fort Sill in Oklahoma. Geronimo became a rancher, appeared (1904) at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, sold Geronimo souvenirs, and rode in President Theodore Roosevelt's 1905 inaugural parade.

Geronimo's final surrender in 1886 was the last significant Indian guerrilla action in the United States. At the end, his group consisted of only 16 warriors, 12 women, and 6 children. Upon their surrender, Geronimo and over 300 of his fellow Chiricahuas were shipped to Fort Marion, Florida. One year later many of them were relocated to the Mt. Vernon barracks in Alabama, where about one quarter died from tuberculosis and other diseases. Geronimo died on Feb. 17, 1909, a prisoner of war, unable to return to his homeland. He was buried in the Apache cemetery at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Article compiled by: Glenn Welker
Last Updated: August 12, 2004

Nez Perce

The Nez Perce are a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the Pacific Northwest region of the United States at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Nez Perce's name for themselves is Ni-Mii-Puu (pronounced nee-mee-poo), which means simply "the People." The Nez Perce territory covered parts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, in an area surrounding the Snake River and the Clearwater River. The Nez Perce, as many western Native American tribes, were migratory and would travel with the seasons, according to where the most abundant food was to be found at a given time of year. This migration followed a predictable pattern from permanent winter villages through several temporary camps, nearly always returning to the same locations year after year. They were known to go as far east as the Great Plains, hunting American Bison and fishing for salmon at Celilo Falls on the Columbia River.  

Probably the best known leader of the Nez Perce was Chief Joseph, who led his people in their struggle to retain their identity in the face of U.S. encroachments on their land. Chief Joseph’s name meant, "thunder coming up over the land from the water". Referred to as the ‘Nez Perce Warrior of Peace’, he was known for his strong stance against the U. S. Government to segregate his people onto reservations. He was born near Oregon's Wallowa Valley in 1840 and died in exile on the Colville Indian Reservation in North Central Washington in 1904. 

Chief of Nez Perce, Chief Joseph



Wilma Mankiller

As the powerful, visionary first woman Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, Wilma Mankiller, was responsible for 139,000 people and a $69 million budget. Wilma Mankiller spent her formative years in San Francisco, where she learned about the women's movement and organizing. When she returned to her native Oklahoma, Wilma Mankiller used her skills to help the Cherokee Nation, starting community self-help programs and teaching people ways out of poverty.

Indian Mathematicians

It is without doubt that mathematics today owes a huge debt to the outstanding contributions made by Indian mathematicians over many hundreds of years. What is quite surprising is that there has been a reluctance to recognize this and one has to conclude that many famous historians of mathematics found what they expected to find, or perhaps even what they hoped to find, rather than to realize what was so clear in front of them. An abacus is a portable calculating device using a frame with rods that are strung with beads. Indigenous native Aztec and Maya people who lived in Mesoamerica, performed mathematical calculations using an abacus made from maize kernels, instead of beads, threaded on strings. It provided a faster and more accurate way of adding and subtracting than relying on memory alone. This abacus, which was called a nepohualtzitzin, had three beads on the top deck and four beads on the bottom. Archaeologists have dated the presence of such counters at about A.D. 900 to 1000. The Aztec abacus, which was devised without any knowledge of the Chinese abacus (invented about 500 B.C.), required the same level of critical thinking and knowledge of mathematics to develop. The Inca, whose empire was established in what is now Peru in about A.D. 1000, also were known to have a type of abacus. This consisted of a tray with compartments that were arranged in rows in which counters were moved in order to make calculations.

Lakota -Sioux Nation

The Lakota are a Native American tribe. They form one of a group of seven tribes (the Great Sioux Nation) and speak Lakota, one of the three major dialects of the Sioux language. The Lakota are the westernmost of the three Sioux groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The seven branches or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are Brulé, Oglala, Sans Arcs, Hunkpapa, Miniconjou, Blackfoot and Two Kettles.

History of the Lakota

Initial contacts between the Lakota and the United States, during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-06, were friendly. But as more and more settlers crossed Lakota lands, this changed. In Nebraska on September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Lakota village, killing 100 men, women, and children. Other wars followed; and in 1862-1864, as refugees from the "Sioux Uprising" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory, the war followed them.Because the Black Hills are sacred to the Lakota, they objected to mining in the area, which has been attempted since the early years of the 19th century. In 1868, the US government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty (1868) with them exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever. Four years later, gold was publicly discovered there, and an influx of prospectors descended upon the area, abetted by army commanders like General George Armstrong Custer. The latter tried to administer a lesson of noninterference with white policies, resulting in the Black Hills War of 1876-77.The Lakota with their allies, the Arapaho and the Cheyenne, defeated the U.S. 7th Cavalry in 1876 at the Battle at the Greasy Grass or Little Big Horn, killing 258 soldiers and inflicting more than 50% casualties on the regiment. But like the Zulu triumph over the British at Isandlwana in Africa three years later, it proved to be a pyrrhic victory. The Teton were defeated in a series of subsequent battles by the reinforced U.S. Army, and were herded back onto reservations, by preventing buffalo hunts and enforcing government food distribution policies to 'friendlies' only. The Lakota were compelled to sign a treaty in 1877 ceding the Black Hills to the United States, but a low-intensity war continued, culminating, fourteen years later, in the killing of Sitting Bull (December 15, 1890) at Standing Rock and the Massacre of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890) at Pine Ridge.

Today, the Lakota are found mostly in the five reservations of western South Dakota: Rosebud (home of the Upper Sicangu or Brulé), Pine Ridge (home of the Oglala), Lower Brulé (home of the Lower Sicangu), Cheyenne River (home of several other of the seven Lakota bands, including the Sihasapa and Hunkpapa), and Standing Rock, also home to people from many bands. But Lakota are also found far to the north in the Fort Peck Reservation of Montana, the Fort Berthold Reservation of northwestern North Dakota, and several small reserves in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, where their ancestors fled to "Grandmother's Land" (Canada) during the Minnesota or Black Hills War. Large numbers of Lakota also live in Rapid City and other towns in the Black Hills, and in Metro Denver.

Information excerpt from:Wikipedia

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Who or What are the Melungeons?

There is also a ridge on the back of the first four teeth-two front teeth and the ones on either side (upper and lower) of some descendants. If you place your fingernail at the gum line and gently draw (up or down) you can feel it and it makes a slight clicking sound. The back of the teeth also curve outward rather than straight as the descendants of anglo-saxon parentage do. Teeth like these are called Asian Shovel Teeth. Many Indian descendants also have this type of teeth. The back of the first four teeth of Northern European descendants are straight and flat. An example of northern European teeth would be similar to this diagram: \l Shovel teeth look like this diagram. Back of teeth )/ front of teeth, straight.Some Melungeon descendants have what is called an Asian eyefold. This is rather difficult to describe. At the inner corner of the eye, the upper lid attaches slightly lower than the lower lid. That is to say that it overlaps the bottom lid. If you place your finger just under the inner corner of the eye and gently pull down, a wrinkle will form which makes the fold more visible. Some people call these eyes, "sleepy eyes, dreamy eyes, bedroom eyes." Many Indian descendants also have these kinds of eyes.

Some families may have members with fairly dark skin who suffer with vitiligo, a loss of pigmentation, leaving the skin blotched with white patches. Some descendants have had six fingers or toes. There is a family of people in Turkey whose surname translated into English is "Six Fingered Ones."

Certain surnames are associated with this highly interesting group of people. Beware, however,that many people bearing these surnames, even if they come from the Appalachian area, are NOT connected to the Melungeons. The surnames are to be used as an indicator of possible Melungeon ancestry. Also, note that many Melungeon women "out-married," carrying the heritage with them, but not the names. Not having one of these names does not mean that the family was not of Melungeon descent.

The common Melungeon surnames include:


















Information excerpts from article: by Nancy Sparks Morrison Genealogist Roanoke, Virginia. For complete article, See:

For additional information see:  N. Brent Kennedy's book "The Melungeons: The Resurrection of a Proud People."



Indian Flag

Because the Native Americans were the first people in this country, many of the United States of America flags consist of Native American Indian imagery and symbols. Some states that have a Native American Indian flag include Massachusetts and Oklahoma. The city of Grand Forks, North Dakota also uses Native American symbolism on their flag.

MASSACHUSETTS: The Massachusetts State Indian flag shows a picture of a Native American Indian in traditional dress on a shield. The Native American is from the Algonquin tribe. He is shown carrying a bow and arrow with the arrow pointing downward. This is a Native American symbol meaning peace. The star that is shown on the Indian flag represents that Massachusetts was one of the original colonies. There is a blue ribbon, which is on the bottom of the shield, which signifies the Blue Hills Reservation in Massachusetts. The Latin words inscribed on the shield mean, “By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under Liberty”. It is said that the Massachusetts Indian flag has been used since the American Revolution. This flag is the same for the governor; only the shape of the flag is a triangular pennant.

OKLAHOMA: The other Native American Indian flag that is used by one of the American states is the Oklahoma state flag. The Oklahoma state flag displays a Buffalo skin shield against a blue background. Seven Eagle feathers surround the shield. This is a shield from the Osage Nation. Two symbols of peace are placed upon the shield the Peace Pipe and the Olive branch. The Peace Pipe represents the Native American tribes and the olive branch represented the Caucasian settlers. The symbolism of the two peace emblems was a wonderful representation of the unity and peace treaties that were enacted by those in Oklahoma and the Native Americans.

Oklahoma means “Red People”

On the forced march of the ‘Trail of Tears’ the Cherokee arrived on March 24, 1839 in their new land called the Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, a word that means "red people."

Indian Removal Act

In 1829, settlers found gold on the Cherokee lands in northeastern Georgia, and they wanted government officials to remove the Indians off their land. In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson. The act argued that, "no state could achieve proper culture, civilization, and progress, as long as Indians remained within its boundaries." The bill called for the removal of all Indians in the southeastern United States to the territory west of the Mississippi River. In 1838, the first groups started out on their 1,000-mile trek, which became known as the Trail of Tears because of the horrors faced, such as disease, lack of food, water and bad weather.

Can you Identify these Historic Natives






Quote from Apache, Geronimo

“I was born on the prairies where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where there were no enclosures." Quote from Apache, Geronimo

History of the Apache

These distinct groups can be organized by dialects:
The Western Apache (Coyotero) traditionally occupied most of eastern Arizona and included the White Mountain, Cibuecue, San Carlos, and Northern and Southern Tonto bands. San Carlos, Aravaipa, White Mountain, Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, and Cibecue in Arizona, Chiricahua and Mimbreno in Arizona and New Mexico, Mescalero (Faraon) in New Mexico and Mexico, Jicarilla (Tinde) in New Mexico and Colorado, Kiowa-Apache (Gataka) in Oklahoma, and Lipan in Texas and Mexico. Western Apache (Coyotero), Eastern Arizona.

They exchanged buffalo hides, tallow and meat, bones that could be worked into needles and scrapers for hides, and salt from the desert with the Pueblos for pottery, cotton, blankets, turquoise, corn and other goods. But at times they simply saw what they wanted and took it. They became known among the Pueblo villages by another name, Apachu, "the enemy".

The Apache's guerrilla war tactics came naturally and were unsurpassed. The name Apache struck fear into the hearts of Pueblo tribes, and in later years the Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-American settlers, which they raided for food, and livestock. The Apache and the Pueblos managed to maintain generally peaceful relations. But the arrival of the Spaniards changed everything. A source of friction was the activity of Spanish slave traders, who hunted down captives to serve as labor in the silver mines of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. The Apache, in turn, raided Spanish settlements to seize cattle, horses, firearms, and captives of their own. The prowess of the Apache in battle became legend. It was said that an Apache warrior could run 50 miles without stopping and travel more swiftly than a troop of mounted soldiers.

The Apache saw themselves differently, they faced constant struggle to survive. When they raided a village, they did so from pure necessity, to provide corn for their families when game was scarce. Most of the time they went their own way, moving from camp to camp in pursuit of deer and buffalo, collecting roots and berries, sometimes planting seeds that they later returned to harvest. They set up their camps on the outskirts of the pueblos. They dressed in animal skins, used dogs as pack animals, and pitched tent like dwellings made of brush or hide, called wikiups. The wickiup was the most common shelter of the Apache. The dome shaped lodge was constructed of wood poles covered with brush, grass, or reed mats. It contained a fire pit and a smoke hole for a chimney. The Jicarillas and Kiowa-Apaches, which roamed the Plains, used buffalo hide tepees. The basic shelter of the Chiricahua was the domeshaped wickiup made of brush. The Apache lived in extended family groups, all loosely related through the female line. (Matriarcial)…. Each group operated independently under a respected family leader….settling its own disputes, answering to no higher human authority


Excerpts taken from article by: July 2, 2005 by Who Else….PurpleHawk

Native Americans and Vegetarianism

George Catlin, the famous nineteenth century Indian historian, described the Choctaw lands of southern Oklahoma in the 1840's this way: "…the ground was almost literally covered with vines, producing the greatest profusion of delicious grapes,…and hanging in such endless clusters… our progress was oftentimes completely arrested by hundreds of acres of small plum trees…every bush that was in sight was so loaded with the weight of its…fruit, that they were in many instances literally without leaves on their branches, and quite bent to the ground… and beds of wild currants, gooseberries, and (edible) prickly pear." (Many of the "wild" foods Anglo explorers encountered on their journeys were actually carefully cultivated by Indians.)

More tribes were like the Choctaws than were different. Aztec, Mayan, and Zapotec children in olden times ate 100% vegetarian diets until at least the age of ten years old. The primary food was cereal, especially varieties of corn. Such a diet was believed to make the child strong and disease resistant. (The Spaniards were amazed to discover that these Indians had twice the life-span they did.) A totally vegetarian diet also insured that the children would retain a life-long love of grains, and thus, live a healthier life. Even today, the Indian healers of those tribes are likely to advise the sick to "return to the arms of Mother Corn" in order to get well. Such a return might include eating a lot of atole. (The easiest way to make atole is to simmer commercially produced masa harina corn flour with water. Then flavor it with chocolate or cinnamon, and sweeten to taste.)

It is ironic that Indians are strongly associated with hunting and fishing when, in fact, "nearly half of all the plant foods grown in the world today were first cultivated by the American Indians, and were unknown elsewhere until the discovery of the Americas." Can you imagine Italian food without tomato paste, Ireland without white potatoes, or Hungarian goulash without paprika? All these foods have Indian origins.

An incomplete list of other Indian foods given to the world includes bell peppers, red peppers, peanuts, cashews, sweet potatoes, avocados, passion fruit, zucchini, green beans, kidney beans, maple syrup, lima beans, cranberries, pecans, okra, chocolate, vanilla, sunflower seeds, pumpkin, cassava, walnuts, forty-seven varieties of berries, pineapple, and, of course, corn and popcorn.

Many history textbooks tell the story of Squanto, a Pawtuxent Indian who lived in the early 1600's. Squanto is famous for having saved the Pilgrims from starvation. He showed them how to gather wilderness foods and how to plant corn. There have been thousands of Squantos since, even though their names are not so well-known. In fact modern day agriculture owes its heart and soul to Indian-taught methods of seed development, hybridization, planting, growing, irrigating, storing, utilizing and cooking. And the spirit of Squanto survives to this day.

One example is a Peruvian government research station tucked away in a remote Amazon Indian village called Genaro Herrera. University trained botanists, agronomists and foresters work there, scientifically studying all the ways the local Indians grow and prepare food. They are also learning how to utilize forests without destroying them, and how to combat pests without chemicals. The trend that moved some North American Indian tribes away from plant food-based diets can be traced to Coronado, a sixteenth century Spanish explorer. Prior to his time, hunting was a hobby among most Indians, not a vocation.


The tribes who depended little or not at all on animal exploitation for their survival, like the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, and Chickasaw, are thriving and growing, having assimilated without surrendering their culture. In the past, and in more than a few tribes, meat-eating was a rare activity, certainly not a daily event.


Excerpts of an Article by: Rita Laws, Ph.D.

(Rita Laws is Choctaw and Cherokee. She lives and writes in Oklahoma. Her Choctaw name, Hina Hanta, means Bright Path of Peace, which is what she considers vegetariansim to be. She has been vegetarian for over 14 years.)   

This article first appeared in the Vegetarian Journal, September 1994, published by The Vegetarian Resource Group



American Indian

When Columbus landed on the island of San Salvador in 1492 he was welcomed by a brown-skinned people whose physical appearance confirmed him in his opinion that he had at last reached India, and whom, therefore, he called Indios, Indians, a name which, however mistaken in its first application continued to hold its own, and has long since won general acceptance, except in strictly scientific writing, where the more exact term American is commonly used. As exploration was extended north and south it was found that the same race was spread over the whole continent, from the Arctic shores to Cape Horn, everywhere alike in the main physical characteristics, with the exception of the Eskimo in the extreme North, whose features suggest the Mongolian.

Fry Bread and Indian Tacos

Cherokee Fry Bread

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 2 tsp. baking powder
  • 3/4 cup milk

Mix ingredigents adding more flour if necessary to make a stiff dough. Roll out the dough on a floured board till very thin. Cut into strips 2 X 3 inches and drop in hot cooking oil. Brown on both sides. Serve hot with honey. Note: Make certain the cooking oil is hot enough, or the fry breads will be doughy, undercooked, and oily.  Cherokee Hard BreadThis bread was made for long journeys and used the batter recipe listed above but was rolled out into donut shapes and baked until very hard. After the bread was baked it was laid out in the sun until it was dry and even harder. The bread was then strung on a cord like beads so it could be easily carried. At meals the bread was stewed or moistened with other liquids to make it soft enough to eat.   

Honey Fry Bread 

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 cup wheat flour
  • 1/4 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 tbsp. sugar
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 2 cup vegetable oil

Mix the flours, salt, sugar and baking powder together. Add about 1/2 cup water and mix well, adding a bit more water if needed to make a stiff dough. Roll it out on lightly floured surface and knead until dough becomes elastic and smooth. Let it stand for 10 minutes. Cut into squares, strips, or circles about 1/2 thick. Deep fry in very hot oil until golden brown. Drain on paper towels. Drizzle honey over bread and serve immediately.   

Navajo Fry Bread

  • 1 quart cooking oil
  • 3 cups sifted flour
  • 1 T. baking powder
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 1 cup warm water

Heat oil to 360 degrees in a heavy 5 qt saucepan. Stir together the flour, baking powder and salt. Gradually stir in water, knead dough until no longer sticky. Cover and let stand 15 minutes. Pull off 2 in. balls of dough. On lightly floured surface, roll each ball into a circle about 1/4 inch thick. Pierce circles of dough several times with a fork.

Deep fry until both side are golden. (about 3-4 minutes) Drain and serve with honey, powdered sugar or jam. Note: Fry bread may be wrapped airtight and frozen up to 3 months. Reheat in a foil packet in a 350-degree oven for 15 minutes. Before serving open the foil to allow the fry bread to dry out on the outside.

Old Fashioned Fry Bread

  • 4 cups flour
  • 2 tbsp. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 cup shortening
  • 1 cup warm water

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Gradually add in the shortening and water. Add only enough water to make dough stick together. Knead dough until smooth, make into fist-sized balls. Cover them with a towel for 10 minutes then pat them out into circles about the size of a pancake. Fry in hot cooking oil in cast iron skillet until brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels, serve with jam.

Osage Fry Bread

  • 4 cups all purpose flour
  • 2 tsp salt
  • 1 tbsp and a half baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon melted shortening
  • 2 cups warm milk
  • shortening for deep frying

Sift flour, salt and baking powder into bowl. Stir in shortening and milk. Knead the dough into a ball. Roll out dough on lightly floured board. Cut into diamond shapes and slice a slit in the center. Heat shortening in deep fryer to 370 degrees. Fry 2 or 3 at a time until golden brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels.

Seminole Fry Bread

  • 2 cups flour
  • 3 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1 cup milk

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Add milk gradually making sure the dough is stiff. Put on floured bread board and pat it out with your hands until it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into strips with a slit in the center. Fry in hot oil until both sides are golden brown.   

Traditional Indian Fry Bread

  • 1 pkg. dry yeast
  • 3 cups warm water
  • 1 tbsp. salt
  • 1 tbsp. sugar
  • 6 cups flour
  • 2 tbsp.oil
  • 1/2 cup cornmeal

Disolve yeast in warm water then add salt and sugar. Let stand for 5 minutes covered with a towel. Add flour and oil to liquid mixture. Mix and put on floured bread board and knead until mixture is smooth. Put dough in a greased bowl, cover with towel and let it rise for 1 1/2 hours. Remove from bowl and put on bread board, knead in the 1/2 cornmeal. Make dough into 2 balls rolling each into 12 inch circles 1/2 inch thick. Cut into 2 inch squares and drop into hot cooking oil. (Works best with cast iron skillet.) Fry 5 to 6 pieces at a time for only a few moments. Drain on paper towel and sprinkle with white powdered sugar. 

Filled Fry Bread

Use one of the bread recipes above. Roll the dough out extra thin and cut into slices about 4 X 6 inches and put a small amount of chopped cooked beef or chicken on each piece. Fold the dough over and pinch the edges. Fry in hot oil until browned.

Indian Tacos

Fry some ground beef until it is nicely browned, seasoning the meat with salt and pepper to taste. Drain away the excess fat, and spread a layer of the meat onto a piece of hot Navajo Fry Bread. Then add shredded lettuce, shredded cheese, chopped onions and chopped tomatoes. Um…very tasty!  

What is “stone-boiling” cooking?

One of the most primitive and perhaps favorite method of cooking was stone-boiling which was done by heating stones until they were very hot then dropping them into a tightly woven basket of water or other liquid. The container did not have to be fireproof.

Quote from Crazy Horse

A very great vision is needed and the man who has it must follow it as the eagle seeks the deepest blue of the sky.  quote from: Crazy Horse

Cherokee Clans

  • Blue Clan, this clan were keepers of children’s medicines and of medicinal herbs. They were named after a plant called a blue holly, which they used for medicine. This Clan has also been known as the Wild Cat Clan or Panther. They were known as a peace clan.

  • Deer Clan, they were fast runners and delivered messages from village to village, or person to person and were excellent hunters and trackers. They were known as a peace clan.

  • Paint Clan, they were the smallest and most secretive clan, and the only ones that were allowed to make a special red paint and dye that are used for ceremonial purposes and war.

  • Twister Clan also known as Long Hair Clan It is said that those belonging to this clan wore their hair twisted or in braided hairdos. The peace chiefs usually came from this clan and wore a white feather robe. Their members were teachers and keepers of tradition.

  • Wild Potato Clan were farmers and gatherers of wild potato plants. They used them to make flour for bread. They were keepers and protectors of the earth. Also known as the Raccoon or Clan Bear Clan.

  • Wolf Clan is the most prominent clan, providing most of the war chiefs, and warriors. They were the protectors of the people and were known as a warrior clan.
  • Indian Proverb

    Treat the earth well, It was not given to you by your parents, It was loaned to you by your children.  Indian Proverb

    The Regions…The Nations, Tribes, Bands

    Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Bidai, Blackfoot, Caddo, Cheyenne, Comanche, Cree, Crow, Dakota (Sioux), Gros Ventre, Hidatsa, Iowa, Kansa, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Kitsai, Lakota (Sioux), Mandan, Metis, Missouri, Nakota (Sioux), Omaha, Osage, Otoe, Pawnee, Ponca, Sarsi, Sutai, Tonkawa, Wichita.

    Great Basin
    Bannock, Paiute (Northern), Paiute (Southern), Sheepeater, Shoshone (Northern), Shoshone (Western), Ute, Washo.

    Carrier, Cayuse, Coeur D'Alene, Colville, Dock-Spus, Eneeshur, Flathead, Kalispel, Kawachkin, Kittitas, Klamath, Klickitat, Kosith, Kutenai, Lakes, Lillooet, Methow, Modac, Nez Perce, Okanogan, Palouse, Sanpoil, Shushwap, Sinkiuse, Spokane, Tenino, Thompson, Tyigh, Umatilla, Wallawalla, Wasco, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wyampum, Yakima.

    Apache (Eastern), Apache (Western), Chemehuevi, Coahuiltec, Hopi, Jano, Manso, Maricopa, Mohave, Navaho, Pai, Papago, Pima, Pueblo, Yaqui, Yavapai, Yuman, Zuni. ** Am strongly thinking about breaking the Pueblo into: Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, Picuris, Pojoaque, Sandia, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Taos, Tesuque, Zia.

    Calapuya, Cathlamet, Chehalis, Chemakum, Chetco, Chilluckkittequaw, Chinook, Clackamas, Clatskani, Clatsop, Cowich, Cowlitz, Haida, Hoh, Klallam, Kwalhioqua, Lushootseed, Makah, Molala, Multomah, Oynut, Ozette, Queets, Quileute, Quinault, Rogue River, Siletz, Taidhapam, Tillamook, Tutuni, Yakonan.

    Achomawi, Atsugewi, Cahuilla, Chimariko, Chumash, Costanoan, Esselen, Hupa, Karuk, Kawaiisu, Maidu, Mission Indians, Miwok, Mono, Patwin, Pomo, Serrano, Shasta, Tolowa, Tubatulabal, Wailaki, Wintu, Wiyot, Yaha, Yokuts, Yuki, Yuman (California).

    African males who Married Native American Women

    As Native American societies in the Southeast were primarily matrilineal, African males who married Native American women often became members of the wife's clan and citizens of the respective nation. As relationships grew, the lines of distinction began to blur. The evolution of red-black people began to pursue its own course; many of the people who came to be known as slaves, free people of color, Africans, or Indians were most often the product of integrating cultures.

    Freedmen with Indian Ancestors

    In the 18th century, British colonies in the Southern US encouraged the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles to own black slaves. Some of these nations, notably the Seminoles, also took in escaped slaves and refused to give them up when whites came demanding the return of fugitive slaves. In 1750, slavehunters were sent to retrieve a slave living in the Creek Nation. A Creek chief stood between them and the black man, cut their rope and threw it in the fire. The posse returned empty-handed. In 1770, a white observer reported that the Creeks allow slaves their freedom when they marry, which "is permitted and encouraged" and their children were considered free. Contemporary Euro-American records revealed a European fear for black/Indian mixing, for there were instances of Africans and Indians joining together in armed resistance against Europeans. A British officer had warned, "Their mixing is to be prevented as much as possible." In 1751, South Carolina law stated: "The carrying of Negroes among the Indians has all along been thought detrimental, as an intimacy ought to be avoided. A 16th century French colonial dispatch also stated "Between the races we cannot dig too deep a gulf". In the 19th century, a number of high ranking Seminoles married black wives – Chief Osceola was one of them. It was said that 52 of his 55 body guards were black. Seminole King Philip too had a black son John Philip, half brother to Chief Wild Cat. King Philip, Chief Osceola and Wild Cat were key figures in the 2nd Seminole war between the US and the Seminole Nation.10 The US General Sidney Jesup apparently saw the mixing of blacks and Indians in the Seminole Nation as a threat: .. the 2 races … are identified in interests and feelings…Should the Indians remain in this territory, the negroes among them will form a rallying point for runaway negreos from adjacent states. When Native Americans in the United States were driven off their land by Europeans, some sought refuge in black communities, passing as 'colored' (of mixed Afro-European ancestry). article Indian in the Family explores the topic of black/Indian mixing in the US. (

    American slavery began to change from the Indian to the "blackamoor" African in the years between 1650 and 1750. Though the issue is complex, the unsuitability of Native Americans for the labor intensive agricultural practices, their susceptibility to European diseases, the proximity of avenues of escape for Native Americans, and the lucrative nature of the African slave trade led to a transition to an African based institution of slavery. During this period of transition, however, the colonial "wars" against the Pequots, the Tuscaroras, the Yamasees, and numerous other Indian nations led to the enslavement and relocation of tens of thousands of Native Americans. In the early years of the eighteenth century, the number of Native American slaves in areas such as the Carolinas may have been as much as half of the African slave population. During this transitional period, Africans and Native Americans shared the common experience of enslavement. In addition to working together in the fields, they lived together in communal living quarters, produced collective recipes for food and herbal remedies, shared myths and legends. The intermarriage of Africans and Native Americans was facilitated by the disproportionality of African male slaves to females (3 to 1) and the decimation of Native American males by disease, enslavement, and prolonged wars with the colonists.

    As Native American societies in the Southeast were primarily matrilineal, African males who married Native American women often became members of the wife's clan and citizens of the respective nation. As relationships grew, the lines of distinction began to blur. The evolution of red-black people began to pursue its own course; many of the people who came to be known as slaves, free people of color, Africans, or Indians were most often the product of integrating cultures. In areas such as Southeastern Virginia, The Low Country of the Carolinas, and Silver Bluff, S.C., communities of Afro-Indians began to spring up. The depth and complexity of this intermixture is revealed in a 1740 slave code in South Carolina: all Negroes and Indians, (free Indians in amity with this government, and Negroes, mulattos, and mustezoes, who are now free, excepted) mulattos or mustezoes who are now, or shall hereafter be in this province, and all their issue and offspring…shall be and they are hereby declared to be, and remain hereafter absolute slaves. (Patrick Minges, Beneath the Underdog: Race, Religion and the "Trail of Tears" Union Seminary Quarterly Review Email: Union Theological Seminary, New York )

    American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    What are the most populous American indian and Alaskan native tribes?

    Crow 13,394
    Delaware 16,341
    Houma 8,713
    Iroquois 80,822
    Kiowa 12,242
    Latin American Indian 180,940
    Lumbee 57,868
    Menominee 9,840
    Navajo 298,197
    Osage 15,897
    Ottawa 10,677
    Paiute 13,532
    Pima 11,493
    Potawatomi 25,595
    Pueblo 74,085
    Puget Sound Salish 14,631
    Seminole 27,431
    Shoshone 12,026
    Sioux 153,360
    Tohono O’odham 20,087
    Ute 10,385
    Yakama 10,851
    Yaqui 22,412
    Yuman 8,976
    Other specified American
    Indian tribes
    American Indian tribe, not specified 195,902
    Alaska Athabascan 18,838
    Aleut 16,978
    Eskimo 54,761
    Tlingit-Haida 22,365
    Other specified Alaska Native tribes 3,973
    Alaska Native tribe, not specified 8,702
    American Indian or Alaska Native
    tribe, not specified

    1. The numbers by American Indian and Alaska Native tribe do not add up to the total population figure because respondents may have put down more than one tribe. Respondents reporting several tribes are counted several times.

    2. Total includes American Indian and Alaska Natives alone or in combination with other tribal groups or races. Indian and Alaskan Native population alone in 2000 was 2,475,956.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000.

    Native Americans and Census Records

    When researching Native ancestor in census records don't be surprised to find information categorizing your Native ancestor as black – negro – freeman of color – mulatto and slave. Some states had no designation for Native Americans.

    Native Ancestry and Census Records

    When researching Native ancestors in census records don’t be surprised to find information categorizing your Native ancestor as black – negro – freeman of color – mulatto and slave. … Native Ancestry and Census Records »»

    Appropriate Methods When Teaching About Native American Peoples

    Research the traditions and histories, oral and written, of Native Americans before attempting to teach these.

    Avoid referring to or using materials which depict Native Americans as "savages," "primitives," "The Noble Savage," "Red Man," "Red Race," "simple," or "extinct."

    Present Native American Peoples as having unique, separate, and distinct cultures, languages, beliefs, traditions, and customs.

    Avoid materials which use non-Native Americans or other characters dressed as "Indians."

    Avoid craft activities, which trivialize Native American dress, dance, and beliefs, i.e. toilet-paper roll kachinas or "Indian dolls", paper bag and construction paper costumes and headdresses. Research authentic methods and have the proper materials. Realize that many songs, dances, legends, and ceremonies of Native American Peoples are considered sacred and should not be "invented" or portrayed as an activity.

    If your educational institution employs images or references to Native American peoples as mascots, i.e. "Redskins", "Indians," "Chiefs," "Braves," etc. urge your administration to abandon these offensive names.

    Correct and guide children when they "war whoop," use "jaw-breaker" jargon, or employ any other stereotypical mannerisms.

    Depict Native American peoples, past and present, as heroes who are defending their people, rights, and lands.

    Avoid manipulative phases and wording such as "massacre," "victory," and "conquest" which distort facts and history.

    Teach Native American history as a regular part of American History and discuss what went wrong or right.

    Avoid materials and texts, which illustrate Native American heroes as only those who helped Europeans and Euro-Americans, i.e. Thanksgiving.

    Use materials and texts, which outline the continuity of Native American societies from past to present.

    Use materials, which show respect and understanding of the sophistication and complexities of Native American societies. Understand and impart that the spiritual beliefs of Native American Peoples are integral to the structure of our societies and are not "superstitions" or "heathen." 

    Invite a Native American guest speaker/presenter to your class or for a school assembly. Contact a local Native American organization or your library for a list of these resources. Offer an honorarium or gift to those who visit your school.

    Avoid the assumption that a Native American person knows everything about all Native Americans.

    Use materials, which show the value Native American Peoples place on our elders, children, and women. Avoid offensive terms such as "papoose", and "squaw." Use respectful language.

    Understand that not all Native American Peoples have "Indian" surnames, but familiar European and Hispanic names as well.

    Help children understand Native American Peoples have a wide variety of physical features, attributes, and value as do people of ALL cultures and races.

    Most of all, teach children about Native Americans in a manner that you would like used to depict YOUR culture and racial/ethnic origin.

     © 1998; Ableza Institute 


    AfriGeneas is a site devoted to African American genealogy, to researching African Ancestry in the Americas in particular and to genealogical research and resources in general. It is also an African Ancestry research community featuring the AfriGeneas mail list, the AfriGeneas message boards and daily and weekly genealogy chats. 



    Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation Chairman

    ''I'm still writing my speech. In the past, when we were in appeals for three years, I addressed USET on the progress of our recognition during each phase and how long it took us. I told the history of our tribe and the content of our petition, and I'll reiterate that, and then ask for the continuing support of the USET tribes of our acknowledgement and our efforts to go forward,'' Flowers said.

    USET passed a resolution of support for the Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation in June 2005 after the Interior Board of Indian Appeals vacated the tribe's acknowledgement and sent it back to the BIA for ''further work and reconsideration.''

    The resolution states, in part, that the state of Connecticut and other opponents ''appear driven not by concerns about compliance with the recognition regulations, but instead by a desire to stop the expansion of Indian gaming and prohibit future acquisition of federal trust land in Connecticut to ensure that the EPTN can never bring a claim for land against the state.''

    The USET resolution ''insist(s) that the BIA uphold its final decision made on June 24, 2004, that recognized the Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation federal acknowledgment and not allow a state to set a new precedence for voiding a final federal decision.''

    The Eastern Pequots' reversal was also swept up in a powerful opposition to the STN's federal acknowledgement that involved a politically connected Washington lobbyist. The Schaghticokes' federal recognition was rescinded on the same day as that of the Eastern Pequots'.

    Under a court-ordered schedule, the STN filed an administrative appeal of the reversal within 120 days, and awaits a federal judge's decision to take up the case.

    The IBIA declined to accept an appeal filed by the Eastern Pequots in January.

    The tribe has seven years to file an appeal, Flowers said. ''We're doing our groundwork and reassessing. Meanwhile, the tribal council meets regularly and we meet every month with the membership. We're still moving forward. So it's business as usual,'' Flowers said.

    Article from Indian Country Today by Gale Courey Toensing

    Discovering the Meaning of a Pow Wow

    Pow Wow singers are very important figures in the Native American culture. Without them there would be no dancing. The songs are of many varieties, from religious to war to social. … Discovering the Meaning of a Pow Wow »»

    What is a Pow Wow?


    African American Registry

    The African American Registry is the largest African American history website. The African American Registry® is the largest depository of Black American history on-line in the world. It is a calendar-based series of Black American accomplishments before the Mayflower to the present. To learn more access:

    Black Native American Association

    The Black Native American Association (BNA) is an intertribal group of people with African-American and Native American heritage who organized in the late summer of 1992. Due to the adverse impact of past and present governmental policies, the Black Native American Association does not mimic 'Blood Quantum Police" tactics. The BNA does not require proof of tribal enrollment or recognition.

    Learn more about the Black Native American Association at:



    Invisible Mathematics

     The book, “Invisible Mathematics”, examines chronological periods in history and how African Americans affected and were affected by mathematics. The African American experience from slavery through the Information Age is examined. Evidence within each period details how mathematics has profoundly affected the progress of African Americans. From their position as slaves to the representation of African Americans as 3/5th a human; to their liberation, right to read, right to vote, and right to fight in the armed services. From their migration from the south to the north, from inner city to suburbia, from blue collar labor to white collar, from business employee to business owner. This book brings into perspective the need for African Americans to embrace mathematics as never before so that academic, social, and economic gains can be maintained and advanced in America.  In each period in history, and in the present, African Americans must seek out Mathematics that is not apparent in each event, activity, situation and circumstance. Mathematics can be undetectable without a concerted effort to search it out and identify it. It is figuratively “Invisible” without an effort being made to find its presence.  The over-sight and avoidance of Mathematics denies African Americans literacy that is an entrance to a number of key components of life. These components consist of academia, economics, politics, health care and numerous other areas that are mathematics intensive. Mathematics literacy can cause a whole new world of opportunity and understanding to open up to African Americans.




      Author:  Dr. Esther M. Pearson
      Publisher: Xlibris
      ISBN: 1-4134-8218-X (Trade Paperback)
      Pages: 129
      Subject: MATHEMATICS / History

      Purchase website:  

      Cost: $17.84

      Contact Author:

      Phone: 978-448-6319



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    Invisible Mathematics







    Trace African American and Native American Ancestry

    How-To-Manual to trace African American and Native American ancestry 

    Black and Red Roots

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    Removal of Indian Tribes and African Americans

    President Andrew Jackson signed a bill that forced the Cherokees, Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Seminole Indian tribes off their land in the southeastern United States. It is estimated that one third of the members of these tribes involved in this removal and the ensuing trek to Oklahoma were of African descent.

    Trail of Tears

    On May 28th in 1830, legislation leading to the “Trail of Tears” was enacted.

    President Andrew Jackson signed a bill that forced the Cherokees, Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Seminole Indian tribes off their land in the southeastern United States. It is estimated that one third of the members of these tribes involved in this removal and the ensuing trek to Oklahoma were of African descent.

    As an adjunct to this policy, the state of Georgia pressured the government to enforce a similar 1802 agreement as compensation for their cession of western territory of the United States. The U.S. Army reported at the time 512 Blacks lived in the Choctaw Nation.

    African American and Native American History
    Princeton Public Library, Princeton, NJ 08542



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    What Does A Native American Look Like?

    Whenever someone asks me what a Native American looks like and I can tell they are trying to say Natives were only white or almost white I show them the picture ‘Bear’s Belly –Arikara, 1908. The Arikara were a group of Native Americans. They were members of the Caddo people who lived in what is now North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas. Today the Caddo are a cohesive tribe with their capital at Binger, Oklahoma.





    Bear Belly, Arikara 1908




    Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe gathered at Havard University

    John Peters Jr., a Mashpee Wampanoag tribal member and executive director of the Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs, recalled what the town of Mashpee was like.

    ''When it was only our people, we ran everything. Then other people came to our community and conflicts arose. We couldn't go to our fishing grounds, houses were built in our hunting grounds and town meetings were manipulated. Things got away from us before we understood what was going on. We've been on that land for thousands of years. It's part of us. Seeing it change has been devastating for many of us.''

    Linda Coombs, a member of the related Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head, said, ''One of the things I've always run across is that people will often refer to us as 'remnants' or 'fragments' of a people. People ask, 'How far back can you trace your heritage?' I think, 'All the way.' Other people say their great-great-great-grandmother was an Indian. For the most part, they are non-Native people who had a Native person marry in. That is their view of Native people. They do not have a sense that there are whole families, whole nations left.''

    The beleaguered history of the tribe was recalled by Ramona Peters. ''We've survived since the Mayflower by virtue of our love for each other and for the land. We were invisible, left alone in the woods for many years. Then the land became attractive, and we became more visible. We were a reservation until 1870, when we became free and removed the missionaries. We've been free until maybe next year, when we'll be wards of the government again.''

    After decades of work, the tribe has just been accorded preliminary recognition by the BIA. The only other federally recognized tribe in the state is the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah).

    Federal recognition, however, is not an unmitigated good, according to the panelists.

    Said Ramona Peters: ''It is very hard to live as a Wampanoag in this country, and being federally recognized will make it even more difficult for us to live as Wampanoag people on our own land.

    ''I'm not impressed by federal recognition, but I know that many of my people who have been culturally deprived need that. There has been a huge effort to de-Indianize us. Now we're going to be discriminated against in a positive way. People in neighboring towns are congratulating us like it's the first time they've ever seen us. We have a lot of unanswered questions and many tasks ahead.''

    Her brother, John Peters Jr., also has mixed feelings about federal recognition. ''I feel as if they are anointing us with preliminary federal recognition. But the federal government has always known who we were.

    ''We were trying to protect our land when we filed the land claim suit in 1976. Our instructions are to protect the land. We found ourselves in another arena that we didn't understand – the courts. They challenged us to meet the criteria of being a tribe and put us before an all-white jury. We didn't know what the criteria were and the judge didn't tell us until after we'd presented our evidence. We presented evidence; then the judge determined what the criteria were; then he instructed the jury. Now our land is 90 percent developed; taxes are forcing us off our land; we have to deal with pollution and traffic jams.

    ''The question today is, What do we do to follow our instructions and take care of the land and communicate that to our neighbors? What approach will we take? How do we fit into this world? How will we provide for future generations and teach them to carry on? Federal recognition is just another tool we will learn how to use as we continue on our path.''

    Another tribal member, Anne Fox, said, ''I am hesitant about being associated with the federal government, but I am honoring my elders who have worked hard on this for 30 years because it will help other tribal members in regard to health issues, the education of our young people, and obtaining housing.''

    Federal recognition could be a useful tool in gaining resources to fund all of those needs. ''But it will not promote our cultural traditions. It's up to us to do that. We all have to be supportive of each other, now more than ever. We deserve everything that is available to us – so many resources have been taken away from us in Mashpee. If this is a way to get some of this back, then fine.''

    According to LaDuke, national identity is not a matter that should be determined by the BIA. ''That is the business of our nations and our clans.''

    The basic conflict, she said, is that although Native Americans should be the richest people in this country, they are the poorest. ''My tribe [Mississippi Band of Anishinaabeg] is like the Bangladesh of Minnesota. We need more federal programs, health care, food, schools.

    ''The federal government does not fulfill [its] trust responsibility to Native peoples, or fulfills it only on a convenience basis. But federal recognition does get tribes some legal support in heated battles with states and counties. It's a very complex situation and it will be interesting to see how it works out for people out here.''

    History has taught some very tough lessons, and perhaps it makes sense to have fairly low expectations of what advantages recognition will bring. ''Once we start adding federal money into the school system, they'll treat our children better,'' said Ramona Peters.

    The panel discussion was sponsored by Cultural Survival, a nonprofit organization dedicated to defending the rights of indigenous peoples around the world.

    From: Indian Country Today- May 23, 2006 – article by Tanya Lee

    Why Black Red Roots are Important

    Black people exploited for their ingenuity and productivity and Red people exploited for their ownership/inhabiting of rich fertile land nourished by a pleasant and manageable climate. These two peoples joined together by circumstance were united in marriage, living arrangements, family, friendships, and working relationships. These people of color neither refused their relationships nor took undue advantage of it, but gained strength and survival from one another. The black people and red people were mixed in their ancestries and destinies.  For this reason the elders comments about a relative being “Indian” should not be questioned but understood, investigated, evidenced, and acted upon. If you have heard the stories about Native American ancestry being a part of your African American heritage, and have a desire to learn more about the Native American branch of your family tree you can learn how to investigate this claim. This knowledge can add another vital branch to your family tree.


    Let the jouney begin to find your Black Red Roots… 

    Were you aware that…

    Native American people don't live in teepees, hunt with bows and arrows and cook over open fires. Our lives reflect the same diversity as any other cultural group in America. We are wealthy, middle class and impoverished. We are educated and uneducated. We are employed and unemployed. We are Americans.

    Did You Know?

    The first slaves in the "New World" were Indians. However, colonists found them difficult to contain — they knew the surrounding countryside and those who had not been captured often organized successful rescue efforts. For a time, slave merchants continued to raid Native American communities along the central and southern shores of the Eastern Seaboard and to encourage local warriors to barter captives they would otherwise kill for European trade goods. The women and children the merchants acquired were sold alongside Africans to buyers in the north while the men were shipped to plantations in the Caribbean.