Civil War

Civil War

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Military Service

The Civil War started in 1861 and ended in 1865. The three major reasons for the Civil War were the countries economic control; the balance of free and slave states; and the moral argument of slavery.

After the Civil War the countries economic control would shift to the northern states. The free and slave states would no longer be so clear-cut. Lastly, the morality of slavery was defeated. It was a victory for abolitionist (those opposing slavery), who was mostly in the northern states. It is estimated that 80% of the blacks participating in the Union military forces were formerly slaves.  

But, prior to the Civil War escaped slaves in the late 1830s and early 1840s living with the Seminole Indians in Florida had intermarried and both lived together in community. These slaves were tribal members referred to as Seminole Negroes. The Seminole Negroes were relocated to Indian Country –West (now known as Oklahoma) during the massive Indian Relocation to the West. The Seminole Negroes moved/escaped Indian Country and moved to Mexico. In Mexico because of their great military skills to include hunting, tracking, horse riding, and gunmanship, they served as soldiers in the Mexican Army.

Thus, the Native American and African American have a long history of courage, skill, and military prowess both separately and as a merged people of common ancestry.  


Article by CherokeeCloud

Written September 12, 2006

Perpetual Peace

The introduction to the “Six Nation” treaty speaks of in its introduction the following:


The President of the United States having determined to hold a conference with the Six Nations of Indians, for the purpose of removing from their minds all causes of complaint, and establishing a firm and permanent friendship with them.


This treaty language seeks permanent friendship between the United States and the Nation of Indians. The first article within the treaty states,


“Peace and friendship are hereby firmly established, and shall be perpetual, between the United States and the Six Nations.”


As history reveals peace and friendship in perpetuity did not occur. But, what did occur is the forceful removal of the Native Americans from their land.


We should be careful about declaring Peace for history has given us fair warning that it is easier said then done.


Article by CherokeeCloud

Written September 16, 2006

President’s Day and The Founding Fathers

George Washington, born February 22, 1732, was the first president of the United States. He is given the distinction of being one of the ‘Founding Fathers’ of the United States along with Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Thomas Paine, Roger Sherman, John Jay, James Wilson, and Governeur Morris.


Abraham Lincoln, born February 12, 1809, was the 16th president of the United States and is best recognized for his part in the emancipation of the Africans that were enslaved in the United States. Lincoln was the Civil War president and his noted ‘Gettysburg Address’ went down in history amongst the most important speeches ever made in the United States.


Both of these United States presidents were from the ‘upper South’, Virginia and Kentucky respectively. These locations gave them a view of both the North and the South and most likely shaped their visions of what the United States could achieve politically, economically, agriculturally, and religiously.


As we reflect on the formation of the desperate states that became a world power, let us not forget the original founding fathers, which were Native Americans. They consisted of Chief Joseph, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, and Red Cloud. Remember to read their stories and accomplishments and take pride in how they worked to change history and preserve the Native Americans and indeed all Americans.




Founding Fathers, Chief Joseph, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, Red Cloud
George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln,

art by David C. Behrens

Article by Cherokee Cloud 

Written: February 18, 2007